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P. 1
Rotation of Axis

Rotation of Axis

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Published by mrrajubai123

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Published by: mrrajubai123 on Jul 02, 2012
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07/02/2012

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
ROTATION OF AXES (CHANGE OF DIRECTION
)
1. Definition
: If the axes are rotated through an angle in the same plane by keeping theorigin constant, then the transformation is called Rotation of axes.
2. Theorem: To find the co-ordinates of a point
( )
,
 x y
are transformed to
( )
,
 X
when the axes are rotated through an angle ‘
θ  
’ about the origin in the sameplane.Proof 
: Let
1 1
,
 x Ox yOY 
are the original axesLet
( )
,
P x y
be the co-ordinates of the point in the above axes.After rotating the axes through an angle ‘
θ  
’, then the co-ordinates of P be
( )
,
 X
in thenew axes
1
 X OX 
and
1
YOY 
as in figure.
1
 x
1
 y
( )
,
P x y
( )
,
 X
XYMNLO
1
 X 
1
Q
θ
θθ
 x
 y
Since
θ  
is the angle of rotation, then
xOX yO
θ  
= =
as in the figure.Since L, M is projections of P on Ox and OX respectively. We can see that
 LPM xOX 
θ  
= =
Let N be the projection to PL from MNow
x OL OQ LQ OQ N
= = − = −
=
cos sin
OM P
θ θ  
=
cos sin
 X
θ θ  
 y PL PN NL PN MQ
= = + = +
 

cos sin
PM O
θ θ  
+
=
cos sin
Y
θ θ  
+
cos sin
 x X
θ θ  
=
and
cos sin
 y Y
θ θ  
= +
------ (1)Solving the above equations to get X and Y, then
cos sin
 X x y
θ θ  
= +
and
sin cos
Y x y
θ θ  
= +
---- (2)From (1) and (2) we can tabulateX Yx
cos
θ  
sin
θ  
y
sin
θ  
cos
θ  
Note:
(i) If the axes are turned through an angle ‘
θ  
’, then the equation of a curve
( )
, 0
 f x y
=
is transformed to
( )
cos sin , sin cos 0
 f X Y X
θ θ θ θ  
+ =
(ii) If 
( )
, 0
 f X
=
is the transformed equation of a curve when the axes are rotatedthrough an angle ‘
θ  
’ then the original equation of the curve is
( )
cos sin , sin cos 0
 f x y x y
θ θ θ θ  
+ − + =
Theorem: To find the angle of rotation of the axes to eliminate xy term in theequation
2 2
2 2 2 0
ax hxy by gx fy c
+ + + + + =
Proof:
2 2
2 2 2 0
ax hxy by gx fy c
+ + + + + =
Since the axes are rotated through an angle
θ  
, then
cos sin
 x X
θ θ  
=
,
sin cos
 y X
θ θ  
= +
Now the transformed equation is
( ) ( )( )
2
cos sin 2 cos sin sin cos
a X Y h X Y X
θ θ θ θ θ θ  
+ +
 

( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin cos 2 cos sin 2 sin cos 0
b X Y g X Y f X Y c
θ θ θ θ θ θ  
+ + + + + + =
( )
2 2 2 2
cos sin 2 cos sin
a X Y X
θ θ θ θ  
+ +
( )
2 2 2 2
2 cos sin cos sin sin cos
h X XY
θ θ θ θ θ θ  
+
( )
2 2 2 2
sin cos 2 cos sin
b X Y X
θ θ θ θ  
+ + +
( ) ( )
2 cos sin 2 sin cos 0
g X Y f X Y c
θ θ θ θ  
+ + + + =
It is in the form
( )
2 2 2
2 cos sin cos sin cos sin
 AX XY a h b
θ θ θ θ θ θ  
+ + + +
2
2 2 0
 BY GX FY
+ + + =
Since XY term is to be eliminated
( )
( )
2 2
cos sin cos sin 0
b a h
θ θ θ θ  
+ =
( ) ( )
2 cos2 2 sin cos sin2
h a b a b
θ θ  
1= 1=
sin2 2tan2cos2
ha b
θ  θ  θ  
= =
Angle of rotation
( )
1
1 22
hTana b
θ  
=
Note:
The angle of rotation of the axes to eliminate xy term in
2 2
2 2 2 0
ax hxy by gx fy c
+ + + + + =
is
4
π  

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