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The Analysis of Piping Under Pressure

# The Analysis of Piping Under Pressure

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07/03/2012

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The analysis of piping under pressure, weight and thennal expansion is complex.This complexity can be understood by knovledge of Principal Axis System.Stress is considered as the ratio of Force to Area. To find the stress in the smallelement, say cube of a piece of pipe, construct a three-dimensional, mutually perpendicular principal axis system with each axis perpendicular to the face of thecube it intersects.Each force, acting on the cube can be resolved into force components, acting alongeach of the axis. Each force, acting on the face of the cube divided by area of the cubeface is called the principal stress.The principal stress acting along the centerline of the pipe is called Longitudinalprincipal stress. This stress is caused by longitudinal bending, axial force loading orpressure.Radial principal stress acts on a line from a radial line from center of pipe throughthe pipe wall. This stress is compressive stress acting on pipe inside diameter caused by internal pressure or a tensile stress caused by vacuum pressure.Circumferential principal stress, some times called Hoop or tangential stress, actsalong the circumference of the pipe. This stress tends to open-up the pipe wall and iscaused by internal pressure. When two or more principal stresses act at a point on a pipe, a shear stress will begenerated.Longitudinal Principal stress, LPS = PD/4TCircumferential Principal stress, CPS (Hoop) = PD/2TRadial Principal stress, RPS = P
Failure Theories
The Code presents equations for detennining the stress levels in a piping system &provides stress limits for comparison. These theories are maximum principal stressfailure theory & maximum shear stress failure theory.

The maximum principal stress failure theory states that when anyone of the threemutually perpendicular principal stresses exceed the yield strength of the material attemperature, failure will occur.The maximum shear failure theory states that when the maximum shear stress(arithmetic average of largest minus smallest principal stresses) exceeds one-half the yield strength of the material at temperature, failure will occur.
Stress Types

The B31.3 Code provides design guidance for primary & secondary stresses. The

basic characteristic of a primary stress is that it is not self-limitinI!. ..\5 long as the

load is applied, the stress will be present & will not diminish \\~th time or as

defonnation takes place. The failure mode of a primary stress. is gross defonnation

progressing to rupture. Examples of a primary stress are circumferential stresses due

to internal pressure & longitudinal bending stresses due to gravity. The basic

characteristic of a secondary stress is that it is self- limiting. The stress will diminish

with time and strain. The failure mode of a secondary stress is small crack leading to

leakage. Secondary stresses are due to cyclic thermal expansion and contraction.

Wall thickness for Internal Pressure
Calculate the adequate pipe wall thickness for a given material and design

conditions, as follows:

1.
Calculate pressure design thickness “t” with formula

t = P x D I [2 (SE+PY)] ... ... ... ... Eq. (3a)

whereP = internal design gauge pressure

D = pipe outside diameter

S = Shallowable stress from Appendix A-I, B31.3

E = Welding Quality factor

Y = stress-temperature compensating factor from table 304.1.1

2. Add the mechanical corrosion/erosion allowances “c” to obtain

t(m) = t+c

3. Add mill tolerance to t(m) to select next commercially available

schedule wall thickness.
WaIt thickness for External Pressure:(REA) (Read with Appendix-A)

The required minimum thickness of a pipe under external pressure is determined as

detailed out in ASME Section VIII Division I Para UG-28 for Do/t > 10 as follows:

Nomenclature:
A
= factor determined from 5-UGO-28.0

B
= factor determined from the applicable material chart for maximum design metal

temperature.

Do
= Outside diameter of pipe in inches.

E
= Modulus of elasticity at design temperature.

L
= Total length of pipe, inches P = External design pressure, psi

Pa
= Calculated value of the maximum allowable external working pressure for the

assumed value of “t”,

psi T
= minimum required thickness of pipe, inches

Procedure
Assume a value for “t” & determine ratios LIDo & Dolt. If LIDo > 50, assume 50 &

LIDo < 0.5, assume 0.5.

1. Enter figure 5-UGO-28.0, Appendix 5 at the value of LIDo.

2. Move vertically to the graphed line on the Dolt graph for the value of UDo. There

are several graphs in Section VIII. Select the graph for the material under

consideration. From the point of intersection, move horizontally to the left to

determine the value of factor A.