The analysis of piping under pressure, weight and thennal expansion is complex.This complexity can be understood by knovledge of Principal Axis System.Stress is considered as the ratio of Force to Area. To find the stress in the smallelement, say cube of a piece of pipe, construct a three-dimensional, mutually perpendicular principal axis system with each axis perpendicular to the face of thecube it intersects.Each force, acting on the cube can be resolved into force components, acting alongeach of the axis. Each force, acting on the face of the cube divided by area of the cubeface is called the principal stress.The principal stress acting along the centerline of the pipe is called Longitudinalprincipal stress. This stress is caused by longitudinal bending, axial force loading orpressure.Radial principal stress acts on a line from a radial line from center of pipe throughthe pipe wall. This stress is compressive stress acting on pipe inside diameter caused by internal pressure or a tensile stress caused by vacuum pressure.Circumferential principal stress, some times called Hoop or tangential stress, actsalong the circumference of the pipe. This stress tends to open-up the pipe wall and iscaused by internal pressure. When two or more principal stresses act at a point on a pipe, a shear stress will begenerated.Longitudinal Principal stress, LPS = PD/4TCircumferential Principal stress, CPS (Hoop) = PD/2TRadial Principal stress, RPS = P
The Code presents equations for detennining the stress levels in a piping system &provides stress limits for comparison. These theories are maximum principal stressfailure theory & maximum shear stress failure theory.