Thermodynamic versus kinetic reaction control
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Energy profile diagram for kinetic versus thermodynamic product reaction.
Thermodynamic reaction control
kinetic reaction control
in a chemical reaction can decide the
composition in a reaction product mixture when competing pathways lead to different products and the reactionconditions influence the selectivity.The distinction is relevant when product
forms faster thanproduct
is lower than that for product
, yet product
is morestable. In such a case
is the kinetic product and is favoured under kinetic control and
is the thermodynamicproduct and is favoured under thermodynamic control.
The conditions of the reaction, such as temperature, pressure, or solvent, affect which reaction pathway maybe favored: either the kinetically controlled or the thermodynamically controlled one. Note this is only true if theactivation energy of the two pathways differ, with one pathway having a lower E
(energy of activation)than the
other.Prevalence of thermodynamic or kinetic control determines the final composition of the product when thesecompeting reaction pathways lead to different products. The reaction conditions as mentioned above influencetheselectivity of the reaction - i.e., which pathway is taken.