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Optical Fiber1

Optical Fiber1

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Published by Manoj Gautam
optical fiber communicatin e book all content covered provided by pokhara university
optical fiber communicatin e book all content covered provided by pokhara university

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Published by: Manoj Gautam on Jul 03, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/28/2013

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///
Ixraemn Gaf`v EiccpoaemraioUqur`c:#V`g`v`oe`u:#
=/ Gaf`v ixrae eiccpoaemraio/ Fq Jiu`xd EXmnmau6/ Gaf`v ixrae eiccpoaemraio/ Fq B/EMlmv|mn5/ Ixraemn gaf`v eiccpoaemraio/ Fq L`vbk`au`v 2/ Ixraemn gaf`v eiccpoaemraio mob aru mxxnaemraio/ Fq U/ELpxrm0/ Cmopmn iomor`oom/
Aorvibperaio:
Rd`v` mv ` cmo q mbwmorml`u ig ixraemn gaf`v eiccpoaemraio uqur`c $IGE! iw`v rd`eiow`oraiomn eixx`v emfn`/ Uic` ig rd`c mv ` :=/ Fvimb fmob|abrd6/ Accpoarq `n`ervicmlo`raeaor`vg`v`oe`/5/ Ni| mrr`opmraio niuu iw`v niol baurmoe`u/2/ Ualomn u`epvarq mob oi eviuurmnk/0/ Naldr |`aldr mob ucmnn bamc`r`v emfn`u/7/ @n`ervaemnaoupnmriv/</ Ni| eiur giv niol baurmoe`eiccpoaemraio/4/ Vpll`bo`uu mobgn`tafanarq/
Daurivq mob`winpraio:#
rd
# Io` ig rd` `mvna`ur koi|o ixraemn rvmoucauuaio |mu rd` pu` ig gav` ualomn fq l``ku ao4e`orpvqF/E/giv u`obaol mnmvc. emnnu giv d`nx iv mooipo e`c`oru ig e`vrmao`w`o/# Rd` cmao bvm|fmek |ard rdau eiccpoaemraio uqur`c puaol naldr rvmoucauuaio |mu rdmr araowinw`bnao` ig ualdr eiccpoaemraio/ D`v` rd` ixraemn ualomn au polpab`b mob ar au mnui rvmoucarr`brdvipldmrciuxd`v` |d`v` ar au upfj`er`b ri rd` mrr`opmraio mob `w`o baurivraio |d`o |`mrd`v eiobaraiomv`gmav/ Rd`v`giv` m f`rr`v ixraemn |mw` eiccpoaemraio uqur`c |ipnb e`vrmaonq o``b m naldr lpab`rid`nx xv`u`vw` rd` ualomn mob ui aoev`mu` rd` v`namfanarq mob baurmoe` ig rvmoucauuaio/# Ao =1=8 rd` xvmeraemn |mw` lpab` |mu pu`b/ Rdau lpab` |mu m uinab eqnaob`v emxmfn` ig lpabaol m|ab` vmol` ig @C |mw`u aoenpbaol rd` wauafn` naldr/ Mr rd` umc` rac` moird`v naldr lpab`b`w`nix`beiouaur`b ig m dinni| rpf` |ard m daldnq v`gn`eraol cmrr`v eimraol io aru aoo`v upvgme`/# @tx`vac`oru io enmuu gaf`vu xmek`b aori fpobn`u |d`v` emvva`b ipr ao =158 ri cmk` rd`c |ivk munaldr lpab`/ Mnrdipld rdau b`ualo acxviw`b rd` rvmoucauuaio `ggaea`oeq. dmobnaol ig gaf`vu.v`bpe`beviuu rmnk f`r|``o gaf`vu ao fpobn`u. ualomn niuu`u v`urvaer`b ixraemn gaf`v ri mxxnaemraiou ig g`|c`r`vu mr rd`ciur/# Oaxxio Lnmuu Eicxmoq ig Jmxmo |mu mfn` ri b`w`nix lvmb`b aob`t gaf`vu ao =174/ Rdau gaf`vu mrmniuu ig n`uu rd`o 68Bf x`kc/# Rd` b`w`nixc`or ig nmu`v ao =178 |mu m nmobcmvk giv IGE puaol eid`v`or naldr ualomn/Rdipldaoaramn nmu`v dmu xiiv nag` rac`u mob |`v` v`}pav`b ri |ivk mr ni| r`cx `vmrpv `. ribmqu nmu`v dmw ` xvij`er`b nag` rac` ig pxri =8 q`mvu mr viic r`cx`vmrpv` mobmfiw`/Bmr`:6877)<)62
 Bi| onimb`b gvic|||/jmqmvmc/eic/ox ) #
=
 
 
///
Mrr`opmraio$bf)kc!m Oio |mw` n`olrd188 ==88 =588 =088
Gal: ixraemn gaf`v uqur`c ix`vmraol vmol`/F3 rvmoucauuaio farvmr`N 3 v`x`mr`v uxmeaol/# Rd` =L naoku ix`vmr`b mr mvipob mr 408 oc. |daed |mu ni| rvmoucauuaio |aobi| ig `mvnquanaemgaf`vu/ Rd`u` naoku pu`b `tauraol lmMu fmu`b ixraemn uipve`u. uanaeio xdiri b`r`eriv mob cpnracib`gaf`vu/ Aor`vcib`n b`xv`uuaio mob gaf`v niuu mr rdau |mw` n`olrd nacar`b rd` emxmearq ig rd`uqur`c/Aor`vearq mxxnaemraio vmol`b gvic 20 ri =28 cfxu |ard v`x`mr`v uxmeaol ig mvipob =8kc/# Rd` b`w`nixc`or ig ixraemn uipve`u mob xdiri b`r`erivu emxmfn` ig ix`vmraol mr =588 oc mnni|`b mudagr ao rd` rvmoucauuaio |mw`n`olrd gvic 488 ri =588 oc/ Rdau v`upnr`b ao upfurmoramn aoev`mu`aord` v`x`mr`v n`uu rvmoucauuaio baurmoe` giv niol dmpn r`n`xdio`rvpoku/# Ao =142 uaoln` cib` gaf`v |`v` `tr`ouaw`nq pu`b |daed dmw` ualoagaemornq nmvl`v fmob|abrd farvmr`uvmol` gvic =00 ri 766 Cfxu iw`v ux`eao l ig v`x`mr`v mr 28kc/# Mr =008 oc rd`v` |mu cped nmvl`v ualomn baux`vuaio fpr cmopgmerpv`u iw`veic` rdau xvifn`c fqev`mraol rd` ui emnn`b baux`vuaio udagr`v gaf`v/ Rd`u` naoku emvvmq rvmggae mr mvipob 6/0 Lfxu iw`v 18kc v`x`mr`v n`uu baurmoe`u/# Fq =117 mbwmoe`u ao dald }pmnarq n`mu`vu mob v`e`aw`v mnni|`b uaoln` |mw` n`olrd rvmoucauuaiovmr`ig mvipob =8 Lfxu/# Gaomnnq urmvraol ao rd` cab =118 m eicfaomraio ig @BGM $@vfapc bper gaf`vu mcxnaga`vu! mob\BC$\mw` n`olrd bawauaio cpnraxn`taol! |mu pu`b ri fpud`b gaf`v emxmearq ri `w`o dald`v n`w`n mobriaoev`mu` rd` rvmoucauuaiobaurmoe`/
Ixraemn gaf`v eiccpoaemraiouqur`c
:#
 Bi| onimb`b gvic|||/jmqmvmc/eic/ox ) #
6
 
 
///
Rvmoucarr`v Cibpnmrivu emvva`v uipve ` Edmoo`n eipxn`v A)XAogvicmraioe dmoo`nGaf`v v`x`mr`vIxraemnmcxnaga`v Ixraemnmcxnaga`v B`r`erivu Mcxnaga`v xvie`uuiv I)XV`e`aw`v 
Rd` l`o`vmnaz` IGE uqur`c au b`uevaf`b f`ni|:
=/ Rd` c`uuml` ivalao cmq rmk` u`w`vmn xdquaemn givcu/ ]par` igr`o ar au rd` rvmoubpe`v rdmr eiow`vrurd`oio `n`ervaemn c`uuml` aori mo `n`ervaemn ualomn/ Eiccio `tmcxn`u aoenpb` caevixdio`ugiv eiow`vraol uipob |mw`u aori epvv`oru mob wab`i emc`vm giv eiow`vraol acml`u aoriepvv`oru/6/ Ar dmu cmaonq r|i xmvrum/ Ar eiow `vru rd` `n`ervaemn c`uuml` ualomn aori xvix `v givcmr a/` momni l iv balarmn f/ Ar acxviw`u rd` ualomn aori rd` |mw` l`o`vmr`b fq rd` emvva`v uipve`u/5/ Rd` emvva`v uipve`u:# Rd` emvva`v uipve`u l`o`vmr`u rd` |mw` io |daed rd` aogivcmraio aurvmoucarr`b/ Rdau |mw` au emnn`b rd` emvva`v/ Giv IGE uqur`c NB $nmu`v baib`! iv N@B mv`pu`b|daed mv` mnui emnn`b ixrae iueannmriv/ Ab`mnnq rd`q xviwab` urmfn` uaoln` gv`}p`oeq |mw`|ardupggaea`or xi|`v giv niol baurmoe`eiccpoaemraio/2/ Aogivcmraio edmoo`n: Ar v`g`vu ri rd` xmrd f `r|``o rvmoucarr`v mob v`e`aw`v/ Ao IGE uqur`c. m lnmuuiv  xnmurae gaf`v au rd` edmoo`n/ Rd` xi|`v aori rd` aogivcmraio edmoo`n au g`b rdvipld rd`edmoo`neipxn`v/ B`uavmfn` ed mvmer`vauraeu ig rd` aogivcmraio edmoo`n aoenpb` ni| mrr`opmraio mob nmvl`naldrmee`xrmoe` eio` moln` giv rvmoucauuaio iw`v niol xmrdn`olrdu/Ixraemn mcxnaga`vu fpur rd` xi|`v n`w`n ig |`mk ualomnu/ Mcxnaga`vu mv` o``b`b ao w`v q niolnaokuri xviwab` upggaea`or xi|`v ri rd`v`e`aw`v/V`x`mr`vu emo f` pu`b ionq giv balarmn uqur`c/ Rd`q eiow`vr |`mk mob baurivr`b ixraemn ualo mnuri`n`ervaemn ualomnu mob rd`o v`l`o`vmr` ivalaomn balarmn xpnu` rvmao giv gpvrd`v rvmoucauuaio/ Ao nioluqur`cuopc`vipu mcxnaga`vu mob v`x`mr`vu cmq f`pu`b/0/ B`r`eriv iv xdiri b`r`eriv: Rd` aogivcmraio cpur oi| f` rmk`o igg rd ` emvva`v |mw`/ Ao IGEuqur`crd` ixrae |mw` au eiow`vr`b aori mo `n`ervae epvv`or f q m xdiri b`r`eriv/ Rd` epvv`or b`w`nix `b fqrdau b`r`eriv au xvixivraiomn ri rd` xi|`v ig rd ` aoeab`or ixrae|mw`/7/ Ualomn xvie`uuaol:# Giv momnil rvmoucauuaio rd` ualomn xvie`uuiv aoenpb`u rd` mcxnagaemraio mobganr`v ig rd` ualomn/ Giv m balarmn uqur`c. rd` xvie`uuiv aoenpb`u b`eauaio eaveparu ao mbbaraio rimcxnaga`vumobganr`vu/</ C`uuml` iprxpr:# Gaomnnq rd` c`uuml` au xv`u`or`b ri m x`vuio |di `ard`v d`mvu iv wa`|u rd`aogivcmraio iv ar cmq bav`ernq pumfn` ao `n`ervaemngivc/
Bmr`:6877)<)61
 Bi| onimb`b gvic|||/jmqmvmc/eic/ox ) #
5

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