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UPSCALING FROM CORE DATA TO PRODUCTION: CLOSING THE CYCLE. A CASE STUDY IN THE SANTA BARBARA AND PIRITAL FIELDS, EASTERN VENEZUELA BASIN

UPSCALING FROM CORE DATA TO PRODUCTION: CLOSING THE CYCLE. A CASE STUDY IN THE SANTA BARBARA AND PIRITAL FIELDS, EASTERN VENEZUELA BASIN

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Published by: ari_si on Jan 08, 2009
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05/09/2014

 
SCA 2001-02
1
UPSCALING FROM CORE DATA TO PRODUCTION:CLOSING THE CYCLE. A CASE STUDY IN THE SANTABARBARA AND PIRITAL FIELDS, EASTERNVENEZUELA BASIN
PORRAS, Juan Carlos, Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.BARBATO, Roberto, Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.SALAZAR, Diomedes, Universidad de OrienteABSTRACT
The Santa Barbara and Pirital fields are located in the North Monagas trend in theEastern Venezuela Basin. Reservoirs in this trend are characterized by high initialtemperature and pressure, and high initial production rates. A tar mat is present at the base of the oil column, acting as a barrier between the aquifers below and the oil-containing formations above. The drive mechanism is solution gas drive and fluidexpansion, with reservoir pressure declining rapidly. The hydrocarbon column variesfrom a gas-condensate cap at the top of the structure to heavy oil at the bottom.The petrophysical characterization incorporated the analysis of the complex variationsin pore and pore throat size that control initial and residual fluid distribution and fluidflow through the reservoirs. Conventional core porosity and permeability, mercuryinjection capillary pressure, relative permeability, and mineralogical data were used tocharacterize the reservoir into rock types having similar flow and storage capacity.Water saturation, all of which is considered immobile, was found to be dependent onrock type, with pore throat being the dominant control on the flow characteristics of the reservoirs. Mercury injection capillary pressure data provided useful informationabout effective pore throat radii, which were semi-quantitatively related to severalreservoir responses, such as permeability, porosity, irreducible water saturation, and acapillary pressure profile or pore throat type curve.A methodology was developed to estimate flow behavior of the different flow unitsfrom the integration of rock, reservoir and fluid properties, analyzing the variablesthat affect production logs, reservoir conditions and the rock types determined.Production curves per foot of perforated interval, curves representing rock quality anda modification of the Vertical Stratigraphic Flow and Storage Diagram were used tocross-correlate different parameters in order to define relations between productionrates and rock types, considering the effect of pressure differential between the borehole and the formation, as well as the characteristics of the fluids present in theformation. A clear relation was obtained between rock properties of the perforatedzones and the production that they contribute to the total well influx. As expected, better relations were encountered for oil-producing than for gas/condensate-producingwells, since gas production is less dependent on rock quality.
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SCA 2001-02
2
The determination of rock types from core data and the integration with productiondata for the definition of zones with similar flow characteristics is fundamental for appropriate reservoir characterization.
INTRODUCTION
The Santa Barbara and Pirital Fields are located in the North Monagas Area, EasternVenezuela Basin (Fig. 1). The stratigraphic column the area comprises approximately17000 ft. of Cretaceous to Plio-Pleistocene sediments. The reservoirs of interest areunder normal pressure conditions and the main depositional environment is deltaic toshallow marine. The main completion method in the area is perforation throughcasing.
Fig. 1
-Relative location map of the Santa Barbara Field, Monagas State, Eastern Venezuela Basin.
The complex pore system present in the area made necessary a detailed petrophysical model based on the study of pore and pore throat size, integrated withsedimentological and production data. Pore throat size may be estimated from routinecore porosity and permeability data at ambient conditions. Combining these data withmercury injection capillary pressure results, Winland (1972) developed an empiricalrelationship between porosity, air permeability and pore aperture corresponding to amercury saturation of 35% (R35). The Winland equation was published by Kolodzie(1980) and is given below:Log(R35) = 0.732 + 0.588Log(
air 
) - 0.864Log(
φ
)
(Eq. 1)
where R35 is the pore aperture radius (microns) corresponding to the 35th percentile,
air 
is uncorrected air permeability (md), and
φ
is porosity (%). R35 pore throat radiusis defined as the pore throat size from mercury injection capillary pressure data wherethe non-wetting fluid (mercury) saturates 35% of the porosity.
SANTABARBARA
CARITOMULATA
UC 1EFUC 1 3FN- 91FUL 1FUL 1FUL 2FUL 10FU 1MUC 4 5FUL 1 6FUL 2 1M11M UC 3S BC 1 9C-2 2 E1SB 3SBC 1 8SBC 4SBC 1PIC1 E
CASUPALTONOROEL FURRIAL
BUCA RE DB UC RE EBOSQ U DPIC E
BOS E-F BO SQUE -BE
PIC 5 E C 2 EPIC 3ET C TNOR T E
TACAT
PIRITAL
 
Ν
MonagasMonagas
20 Km.
 
SCA 2001-02
3
In 1992, Pittman, based on Winland’s work, developed R35-type equations for porethroats corresponding to mercury saturations from 10% to 75%. Different techniqueswere used to determine which of these equations best fitted the study area.Conventional core porosity and permeability data from 17 key wells, and mercuryinjection capillary pressure data from 11 of these wells, were used to determine the pore throat and the petrophysical model of the area.
The analysis of production data and the correlation with petrophysical parameters wasnecessary to validate the petrophysical model. This study intended to establishrelations between flow rates and the corresponding rock types for the differentproducing intervals, with the purpose of predicting production rates frompetrophysical properties. Production rate depends on variables such as differentialpressure and fluid type, making difficult the comparison with discrete petrophysicalproperties. To simplify this scenario, it was necessary to standardize some of thesevariables in order to establish tangible relations with petrophysical parameters.Detailed study of production logs demonstrated that the percentage of flowcontributions remained constant regardless of differential pressure. When productionlog tests are performed and choke sizes are changed, flow rates of the producingintervals vary; however, the percentage of the total rate contributed by each intervalremains constant. This allows the study of production logs disregarding the effect of differential pressure, and made possible the correlation between production andpetrophysical data.
SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Previous studies in the area identified 10 sedimentary facies, mainly based on thevariations in grain size and sedimentary structures: 
 S 
:
Coarse- to very coarse-grained sandstone, sometimes conglomeratic, moderateto poorly sorted, low angle cross stratification, occasionally massive, oil-stained. 
 S3
:
Medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, moderate to well sorted, frequent lowangle cross stratification, occasionally massive, moderately oil-stained. 
 S11
:
Fine- to medium-grained sandstone, moderate to well sorted, generallymassive, occasional low angle cross stratification, moderate to highly oil stained, littleor absent bioturbation. 
 S1
:
Fine- to medium-grained sandstone, well sorted, with continuous dark grayclay laminae, low or absent oil stain, little or absent bioturbation. 
 S2
:
Fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, moderate to well sorted, with non-continuous dark gray clay laminae, low or absent oil stain, little or absent bioturbation. 
 Sbp
:
Fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, moderate to well sorted, intensely bioturbated, frequent low angle cross stratification, poor or absent oil stain. 
 ST 
:
Massive light gray siltstone. 
 H 
:
Dark gray shale, interbedded with well sorted fine-grained sandstone,occasional parallel stratification and ripples, poor or absent oil stain.
 L
:
Dark gray shale.
:
Coal.

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