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Waveguides Report

Waveguides Report

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Published by Matthew Sherwin

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Published by: Matthew Sherwin on Jul 03, 2012
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Metal clad symmetric waveguides: properties and their use forthe determination of dc Kerr coefficients of organic films.
Jonathan CornishProject report 2011-2012Supervisors: Marek Szablewski and Graham Cross.
 
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Abstract
The properties of fabricated metal clad symmetric waveguides are examined in termsof the variance of structure, cover layer thickness, film thickness and film thicknessuniformity. The materials used as film layers are PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) dopedwith MOR
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and IPDI (polydicyanovinyl isophoronediisocyanate). Silver is used as the coverand cladding layers. Glass is used as the base layer and for coupling light from in onestructure type (base coupled), whilst air is used for coupling light from in the other structuretype (free space coupled). Analysis of their ATR spectra at 632.8nm is carried out, allowingthe achievement of up to 83.4±0.1% light coupling, single mode waveguiding, film heightuniformity analysis, and dc Kerr effect analysis. Free space coupled structures with silvercover layers of ~24nm are found to be of most use for dc Kerr anaylsis.Microscopic flaws in film layer quality restrict dc Kerr analysis to only one of manyfabricated waveguides. Upper bounds for

to and

and therefore a range for the dc Kerrcoefficient are found for 0.805±0.006% w/w doped MOR
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in isotropic PMMA. These boundsare



 
and



for

and

respectively, leadingto a range for the dc Kerr coefficient of 




. This range implies thatdoping MOR
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into isotropic PMMA at 0.805±0.006% w/w does not significantly change thedc Kerr coefficient compared to undoped isotropic PMMA.
Acknowledgements
I would very much like to thank Dr. Szablewski for being always supportive andhelpful with regard to carrying out the project, but more so for just being easy to talk to andhaving a good sense of humour. I would like to thank Dr. Cross for always being availablefor discussion with regard to the operation of waveguides, and again for having a good senseof humour. I thank the lab technicians as they always made borrowing equipment easy, andespecially Duncan McCallum, for his constant help with regard to making my experimentssafe. My housemates were supportive as always, and were always open to letting me talk indetail about how my project was going, while even at points seeming genuinely interested,for these reasons and more, I thank them.
 
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Contents
1 Introduction2 Theory2.1 Waveguide theory2.1.1 Ray optics model2.1.2 Effective refractive index and propagation constant2.1.3 EM field model2.2 Waveguide coupling techniques2.3 NLO origins and effects2.4 Organic NLO materials3 Experimental3.1 Fabrication3.1.1 Preparation of solutions3.1.2 Waveguide structures and cleaning3.1.3 Deposition of silver layers3.1.4 Formation of thin films3.2 ATR technique3.3 Film thickness measurements3.4 Absorbance spectra3.5 dc Kerr effect measurements4 Results and discussion4.1 Absorbance spectra4.2 Unsuccessful waveguides4.3 Successful waveguides4.4 Film thickness measurements and code generated ATRs4.5 Variance of structure type4.6 Variance of cover layer thickness4.7 Single mode waveguides4.8 dc Kerr effect measurements5 Conclusion

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