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Inegalitati Polinomiale, Articol de Vasile Cirtoaje

Inegalitati Polinomiale, Articol de Vasile Cirtoaje

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The Australian Journal of MathematicalAnalysis and Applications
Volume 9
, Issue 1, Article 15, pp. 1-17, 2012
NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS FOR CYCLIC HOMOGENEOUSPOLYNOMIAL INEQUALITIES OF DEGREE FOUR IN REAL VARIABLES
VASILE CIRTOAJE, YUANZHE ZHOU
 Received 7 November, 2011; accepted 31 January, 2012; published 8 May, 2012.
D
EPARTMENT OF
A
UTOMATIC
C
ONTROL AND
C
OMPUTERS
, U
NIVERSITY OF
P
LOIESTI
, R
OMANIA
H
IGH
S
CHOOL
A
FFILIATED TO
W
UHAN
U
NIVERSITY
, C
HINA
A
BSTRACT
. In this paper, we give two sets of necessary and sufficient conditions that the in-equality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
holds for any real numbers
x,y,z
, where
4
(
x,y,z
)
is a cyclic homoge-neous polynomial of degree four. In addition, all equality cases of this inequality are analysed.For the particular case in which
4
(1
,
1
,
1) = 0
, we get the main result in [3]. Several applica-tions are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Key words and phrases:
Cyclic Homogeneous Inequality, Fourth Degree Polynomial, Three Real Variables, Necessary andSufficient Conditions.2010
Mathematics Subject Classification.
26D05.
ISSN (electronic): 1449-5910c
2012 Austral Internet Publishing. All rights reserved.
 
2
V
ASILE
C
IRTOAJE
, Y
UANZHE
Z
HOU
1.
I
NTRODUCTION
Consider the fourth degree cyclic homogeneous polynomial(1.1)
4
(
x,y,z
) =
x
4
+
A
x
2
y
2
+
Bxyz
x
+
x
3
y
+
D
xy
3
,
where
A,B,C,D
are real constants, and
denotes a cyclic sum over
x
,
y
and
z
.The following theorem expresses the necessary and sufficient condition that the inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
holds for any real numbers
x,y,z
in the particular case when
4
(1
,
1
,
1) = 0
(see [3] and [4]):
Theorem 1.1.
If 
1 +
A
+
B
+
+
D
= 0
,
then the cyclic inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
holds for all real numbers
x,y,z
if and only if 
3(1 +
A
)
2
+
CD
+
D
2
.
The corollary below gives only sufficient conditions to have
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
for any realnumbers
x,y,z
(see [3]):
Corollary 1.2.
If 
1 +
A
+
B
+
+
D
0
and 
2(1 +
A
)
B
+
+
D
+
2
+
CD
+
D
2
,
then the cyclic inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
holds for all real numbers
x,y,z
.
In this paper, we generalize the results in Theorem1.1to the case where
1 +
A
+
B
+
+
D
0
,
which is equivalent to the necessary condition
4
(1
,
1
,
1)
0
.2.
M
AIN
R
ESULTS
We establish two theorems which give necessary and sufficient conditions to have
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
foranyrealnumbers
x,y,z
, where
4
(
x,y,z
)
isafourthdegreecyclichomogeneouspolynomialhaving the form (1.1).
Theorem 2.1.
The inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
holds for all real numbers
x,y,z
if and only if 
4
(
t
+
k,k
+ 1
,kt
+ 1)
0
 for all real
t
 , where
k
[0
,
1]
is a root of the polynomial
(
k
) = (
D
)
k
3
+ (2
A
B
+ 2
D
4)
k
2
(2
A
B
+ 2
D
4)
k
+
D.
Remark 2.1.
For
=
D
, the polynomial
(
k
)
has the roots
0
and
1
, while for
=
D
,
(
k
)
has three real roots, but only one in
[0
,
1]
. To prove this assertion, we see that
(0) =
(1) =
D
. If 
C > D
, then
(
−∞
) =
−∞
,
(0)
>
0
,
(1)
<
0
,
(
) =
,
and if 
C < D
, then
(
−∞
) =
,
(0)
<
0
,
(1)
>
0
,
(
) =
−∞
.
 AJMAA
, Vol.
9
, No. 1, Art. 15, pp. 1-17, 2012
 
CYCLIC HOMOGENEOUS POLYNOMIAL INEQUALITIES OF DEGREE FOUR
3
From the proof of Theorem2.1, we get immediately the equality cases of the inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
.
Proposition 2.2.
The inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
in Theorem2.1becomes an equality if 
xt
+
k
=
yk
+ 1=
zkt
+ 1
(or any cyclic permutation), where
k
(0
,
1]
is a root of the equation
(
D
)
k
3
+ (2
A
B
+ 2
D
4)
k
2
(2
A
B
+ 2
D
4)
k
+
D
= 0
and 
t
R
is a root of the equation
4
(
t
+
k,k
+ 1
,kt
+ 1) = 0
.
Theorem 2.3.
The inequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
holds for all real numbers
x,y,z
if and only if 
g
4
(
t
)
0
for all
t
0
 , where
g
4
(
t
) = 3(2 +
A
D
)
t
4
Ft
3
+ 3(4
B
+
+
D
)
t
2
+ 1 +
A
+
B
+
+
D,
=
 
27(
D
)
2
+
2
,
= 8
4
A
+ 2
B
D.
Remark 2.2.
In the special case
4
(1
,
1
,
1) = 0
, when
1 +
A
+
B
+
+
D
= 0
,
from Theorem2.3we get Theorem1.1. The condition
g
4
(
t
)
0
in Theorem2.3becomes
(2 +
A
D
)
t
4
+ (5 +
A
+ 2
+ 2
D
)
t
2
 
(2
2
A
D
)
2
+ 3(
D
)
2
t
3
,
and it holds for all
t
0
if and only if 
2 +
A
D
0
,
5 +
A
+ 2
+ 2
D
)
0
,
2
 
(2 +
A
D
)(5 +
A
+ 2
+ 2
D
)
 
(2
2
A
D
)
2
+ 3(
D
)
2
.
The last inequality is equivalent to
3(1 +
A
)
2
+
D
2
+
CD,
which involves
2 +
A
D
1
(
+
D
) +(
+
D
)
2
3
CD
3
1
(
+
D
) +(
+
D
)
2
3
(
+
D
)
2
12=
1
+
D
2
2
0
and
5 +
A
+ 2
+ 2
D
4 + 2(
+
D
) +(
+
D
)
2
3
CD
3
4 + 2(
+
D
) +(
+
D
)
2
3
(
+
D
)
2
12=
2 +
+
D
2
2
0
.
Thus, we obtained the necessary and sufficient condition in Theorem1.1,namely
3(1 +
A
)
2
+
CD
+
D
2
.
Thefollowingpropositiongivestheequalitycasesoftheinequality
4
(
x,y,z
)
0
for
= 0
.
 AJMAA
, Vol.
9
, No. 1, Art. 15, pp. 1-17, 2012

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