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Inegalitati Polinomiale, Articol de Vasile CirtoajeRatings: (0)|Views: 152|Likes: 4

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/99000289/Inegalitati-Polinomiale-Articol-de-Vasile-Cirtoaje

08/01/2013

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The Australian Journal of MathematicalAnalysis and Applications

Volume 9

, Issue 1, Article 15, pp. 1-17, 2012

NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS FOR CYCLIC HOMOGENEOUSPOLYNOMIAL INEQUALITIES OF DEGREE FOUR IN REAL VARIABLES

VASILE CIRTOAJE, YUANZHE ZHOU

Received 7 November, 2011; accepted 31 January, 2012; published 8 May, 2012.

D

EPARTMENT OF

A

UTOMATIC

C

ONTROL AND

C

OMPUTERS

, U

NIVERSITY OF

P

LOIESTI

, R

OMANIA

H

IGH

S

CHOOL

A

FFILIATED TO

W

UHAN

U

NIVERSITY

, C

HINA

A

BSTRACT

. In this paper, we give two sets of necessary and sufﬁcient conditions that the in-equality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

holds for any real numbers

x,y,z

, where

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

is a cyclic homoge-neous polynomial of degree four. In addition, all equality cases of this inequality are analysed.For the particular case in which

f

4

(1

,

1

,

1) = 0

, we get the main result in [3]. Several applica-tions are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Key words and phrases:

Cyclic Homogeneous Inequality, Fourth Degree Polynomial, Three Real Variables, Necessary andSufﬁcient Conditions.2010

Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation.

26D05.

ISSN (electronic): 1449-5910c

2012 Austral Internet Publishing. All rights reserved.

2

V

ASILE

C

IRTOAJE

, Y

UANZHE

Z

HOU

1.

I

NTRODUCTION

Consider the fourth degree cyclic homogeneous polynomial(1.1)

f

4

(

x,y,z

) =

x

4

+

A

x

2

y

2

+

Bxyz

x

+

C

x

3

y

+

D

xy

3

,

where

A,B,C,D

are real constants, and

denotes a cyclic sum over

x

,

y

and

z

.The following theorem expresses the necessary and sufﬁcient condition that the inequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

holds for any real numbers

x,y,z

in the particular case when

f

4

(1

,

1

,

1) = 0

Theorem 1.1.

If

1 +

A

+

B

+

C

+

D

= 0

,

then the cyclic inequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

holds for all real numbers

x,y,z

if and only if

3(1 +

A

)

≥

C

2

+

CD

+

D

2

.

The corollary below gives only sufﬁcient conditions to have

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

for any realnumbers

x,y,z

Corollary 1.2.

If

1 +

A

+

B

+

C

+

D

≥

0

and

2(1 +

A

)

≥

B

+

C

+

D

+

C

2

+

CD

+

D

2

,

then the cyclic inequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

holds for all real numbers

x,y,z

.

1 +

A

+

B

+

C

+

D

≥

0

,

which is equivalent to the necessary condition

f

4

(1

,

1

,

1)

≥

0

.2.

M

AIN

R

ESULTS

We establish two theorems which give necessary and sufﬁcient conditions to have

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

foranyrealnumbers

x,y,z

, where

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

Theorem 2.1.

The inequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

holds for all real numbers

x,y,z

if and only if

f

4

(

t

+

k,k

+ 1

,kt

+ 1)

≥

0

for all real

t

, where

k

∈

[0

,

1]

is a root of the polynomial

f

(

k

) = (

C

−

D

)

k

3

+ (2

A

−

B

−

C

+ 2

D

−

4)

k

2

−

(2

A

−

B

+ 2

C

−

D

−

4)

k

+

C

−

D.

Remark 2.1.

For

C

=

D

, the polynomial

f

(

k

)

has the roots

0

and

1

, while for

C

=

D

,

f

(

k

)

has three real roots, but only one in

[0

,

1]

. To prove this assertion, we see that

f

(0) =

−

f

(1) =

C

−

D

. If

C > D

, then

f

(

−∞

) =

−∞

, f

(0)

>

0

, f

(1)

<

0

, f

(

∞

) =

∞

,

and if

C < D

, then

f

(

−∞

) =

∞

, f

(0)

<

0

, f

(1)

>

0

, f

(

∞

) =

−∞

.

AJMAA

, Vol.

9

, No. 1, Art. 15, pp. 1-17, 2012

CYCLIC HOMOGENEOUS POLYNOMIAL INEQUALITIES OF DEGREE FOUR

3

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

.

Proposition 2.2.

The inequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

xt

+

k

=

yk

+ 1=

zkt

+ 1

(or any cyclic permutation), where

k

∈

(0

,

1]

is a root of the equation

(

C

−

D

)

k

3

+ (2

A

−

B

−

C

+ 2

D

−

4)

k

2

−

(2

A

−

B

+ 2

C

−

D

−

4)

k

+

C

−

D

= 0

and

t

∈

R

is a root of the equation

f

4

(

t

+

k,k

+ 1

,kt

+ 1) = 0

.

Theorem 2.3.

The inequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

holds for all real numbers

x,y,z

if and only if

g

4

(

t

)

≥

0

for all

t

≥

0

, where

g

4

(

t

) = 3(2 +

A

−

C

−

D

)

t

4

−

Ft

3

+ 3(4

−

B

+

C

+

D

)

t

2

+ 1 +

A

+

B

+

C

+

D,F

=

27(

C

−

D

)

2

+

E

2

, E

= 8

−

4

A

+ 2

B

−

C

−

D.

Remark 2.2.

In the special case

f

4

(1

,

1

,

1) = 0

, when

1 +

A

+

B

+

C

+

D

= 0

,

g

4

(

t

)

≥

0

(2 +

A

−

C

−

D

)

t

4

+ (5 +

A

+ 2

C

+ 2

D

)

t

2

≥

(2

−

2

A

−

C

−

D

)

2

+ 3(

C

−

D

)

2

t

3

,

and it holds for all

t

≥

0

if and only if

2 +

A

−

C

−

D

≥

0

,

5 +

A

+ 2

C

+ 2

D

)

≥

0

,

2

(2 +

A

−

C

−

D

)(5 +

A

+ 2

C

+ 2

D

)

≥

(2

−

2

A

−

C

−

D

)

2

+ 3(

C

−

D

)

2

.

The last inequality is equivalent to

3(1 +

A

)

≥

C

2

+

D

2

+

CD,

which involves

2 +

A

−

C

−

D

≥

1

−

(

C

+

D

) +(

C

+

D

)

2

3

−

CD

3

≥

1

−

(

C

+

D

) +(

C

+

D

)

2

3

−

(

C

+

D

)

2

12=

1

−

C

+

D

2

2

≥

0

and

5 +

A

+ 2

C

+ 2

D

≥

4 + 2(

C

+

D

) +(

C

+

D

)

2

3

−

CD

3

≥

4 + 2(

C

+

D

) +(

C

+

D

)

2

3

−

(

C

+

D

)

2

12=

2 +

C

+

D

2

2

≥

0

.

3(1 +

A

)

≥

C

2

+

CD

+

D

2

.

Thefollowingpropositiongivestheequalitycasesoftheinequality

f

4

(

x,y,z

)

≥

0

for

F

= 0

.

AJMAA

, Vol.

9

, No. 1, Art. 15, pp. 1-17, 2012

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