2
electrons (See Fig.1 (b)).
The electrons canthen travel through the lattice
as
a singleentity
, known as a
Cooper Pair
(See Fig.1(c)). While conventional conduction isresisted by thermal vibrations within thelattice, Cooper Pairs carry the supercurrentrelatively unresisted by thermal vibrations.
The energy of the pairing interaction isquite weak, of the order of 10
−
3
eV, andthermal energy can easily break the pairs.
Soonly at low temperatures, are a significant number of the electrons in a metal in Cooper pairs
intensifying thegravitational interaction
[4] between
electrons pairs, it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10
−
1
eV,enough to keep them paired at
ambient temperatures
. Thus, by this way, metals atambient temperature can have a significantnumber of the electrons in Cooper pairs,transforming such metals in superconductorsat ambient temperature.
2. Theory
The quantization of gravity showedthat the
gravitational mass
m
g
and the
inertial mass
m
i
are correlated by means of the following factor [4]:
( )
11121
200
⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ Δ+−==
cm pmm
iig
χ
where is the
rest
inertial mass of the particle and is the variation in the particle’s
kinetic momentum
; is the speedof light.
0
i
m
p
Δ
c
When is produced by theabsorption of a photon with wavelength
p
Δ
λ
, itis expressed by
λ
h p
=Δ
. In this case, Eq.(1) becomes
*
De Aquino, F. (2008)
Process and Device for
Controllingthe Locally the Gravitational Mass and the GravityAcceleration, BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5, July 31,2008.
( )
21121
1121
20200
⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ +−=⎪⎭⎪⎬⎫⎪⎩⎪⎨⎧⎥⎥⎦⎤⎢⎢⎣⎡−⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ +−=
λ λ λ
cmhmm
iig
where
cmh
i
00
=
λ
is the
DeBrogliewavelength
for the particle with
rest
inertialmass
.
0
i
m
In general, the
momentum
variation
p
Δ
is expressed by
t F p
Δ=Δ
where is theapplied force during a time interval
F
t
Δ
. Notethat there is no restriction concerning the
nature
of the force, i.e., it can be mechanical,electromagnetic, etc. For example, we canlook on the
momentum
variation as dueto absorption or emission of
electromagneticenergy
by the particle.
p
Δ
This means that, by means of electromagnetic fields, the
gravitational mass
can be decreased down to become negativeand
increased
(
independentl
y of the inertialmass ). In this way,
the gravitational forces can be intensified
. Consequently, wecan use, for example, oscillating magneticfields in order to
intensify the gravitationalinteraction
between electrons pairs, in order to produce pair binding energies enough tokeep them paired at
ambient temperatures
.We will show that the magnetic field used inthis case must have extremely-low frequency(ELF).
i
m
From Electrodynamics we know thatwhen an electromagnetic wave withfrequency and velocity incides on amaterial with relative permittivity
f
c
r
ε
,relative magnetic permeability
r
μ
andelectrical conductivity
σ
, its
velocity isreduced
to
r
ncv
=
where is the index of refraction of the material, given by [
r
n
( ) ( )
3112
2
⎟ ⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ ++==
ωε σ μ ε
r r r
vcn