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Superconducting State generated by Cooper Pairs bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction

Superconducting State generated by Cooper Pairs bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction

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Published by Fran De Aquino
We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.
We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.

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Published by: Fran De Aquino on Jul 03, 2012
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Superconducting State generated by Cooper Pairs bound byIntensified Gravitational Interaction
Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.Copyright
©
2012 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserve
d.
We show that by
intensifying the gravitational interaction
between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10
1
eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (
Cooper Pairs
)
 
at
ambient temperatures
. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambienttemperature.
Key words:
 
Modified theories of gravity, Theories and models of superconducting state, superconducting materials, Nonconventional mechanisms.
PACS: 04.50.Kd,
74.20.-z, 74.70.-b, 74.20.Mn.
1. Introduction
A pair of weakly bound electrons in asuperconductor is called
Cooper pair 
; it wasfirst described in 1956 by Leon Cooper [1]
.
 As showed by Cooper, an attraction betweenelectrons in a metal can cause a paired stateof electrons to have a lower energy than theFermi energy, which implies that the pair is
bound 
. In conventional superconductors, thisattraction is due to the electron–phononinteraction.
The Cooper pair state isresponsible for superconductivity, asdescribed in
the BCS theory developed byJohn Bardeen, John Schrieffer and LeonCooper for which they shared the 1972 NobelPrize [2].In spite of Cooper pairing to be aquantum effect the reason for the pairing can be seen from a simplified classicalexplanation [3]. In order to understand howan attraction between two electrons canoccur, it is necessary to consider theinteraction with the positive ions lattice of the metal. Usually an electron in a metal behaves as a free particle. Its negative chargecauses attraction between
the positive ionsthat make up the rigid lattice of the metal
.This attraction distorts the ion lattice, movingthe ions slightly toward the electron,
increasing the positive charge density of thelattice in the local
(See gray glow in Fig.1(a)). Then, another electron is attracted to the positive charge density (gray glow) created by the first electron distorting the latticearound itself. This attraction can overcomethe electrons' repulsion due to their negativecharge and create a binding between the two
+ + + ++ +
+ +
-
+ +
+ ++ + + +(
a
)+ + + ++ +
+ +-+ +
+ ++ + + +(
b
)+ + + ++ + + +- -+ + + ++ + + +(
c
)Fig. 1 – Cooper Pair Formation-
 
2
electrons (See Fig.1 (b)).
The electrons canthen travel through the lattice
as
a singleentity
, known as a
Cooper Pair 
(See Fig.1(c)). While conventional conduction isresisted by thermal vibrations within thelattice, Cooper Pairs carry the supercurrentrelatively unresisted by thermal vibrations.
 
The energy of the pairing interaction isquite weak, of the order of 10
3
eV, andthermal energy can easily break the pairs.
Soonly at low temperatures, are a significant number of the electrons in a metal in Cooper  pairs
.Here is showed that, by 
intensifying thegravitational interaction
 
*
 [4] between electrons pairs, it is possible to produce pair  binding energies on the order of 10
1
eV,enough to keep them paired at
ambient temperatures
. Thus, by this way, metals atambient temperature can have a significantnumber of the electrons in Cooper pairs,transforming such metals in superconductorsat ambient temperature.
2. Theory
 The quantization of gravity showedthat the
gravitational mass
 
m
g
and the
inertial mass
 
m
i
are correlated by means of the following factor [4]:
( )
11121
200
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ Δ+==
cm pmm
iig
 χ 
 where is the
rest 
inertial mass of the particle and is the variation in the particle’s
kinetic momentum
; is the speedof light.
0
i
m
 p
Δ
c
When is produced by theabsorption of a photon with wavelength
 p
Δ
λ 
, itis expressed by
λ 
h p
=Δ
. In this case, Eq.(1) becomes
*
 
De Aquino, F. (2008)
Process and Device for 
Controllingthe Locally the Gravitational Mass and the GravityAcceleration, BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5, July 31,2008.
 
( )
21121 1121
20200
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ += ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ +=
λ λ λ 
cmhmm
iig
 where
cmh
i
00
=
λ 
is the
 DeBrogliewavelength
for the particle with
rest 
inertialmass
.
 
0
i
m
In general, the
momentum
variation
 p
Δ
is expressed by
 p
Δ=Δ
where is theapplied force during a time interval
Δ
. Notethat there is no restriction concerning the
nature
of the force, i.e., it can be mechanical,electromagnetic, etc. For example, we canlook on the
momentum
variation as dueto absorption or emission of 
electromagneticenergy
 by the particle.
 p
Δ
This means that, by means of electromagnetic fields, the
gravitational mass
 can be decreased down to become negativeand
increased 
(
independentl
y of the inertialmass ). In this way,
the gravitational forces can be intensified 
. Consequently, wecan use, for example, oscillating magneticfields in order to
intensify the gravitationalinteraction
between electrons pairs, in order to produce pair binding energies enough tokeep them paired at
ambient temperatures
.We will show that the magnetic field used inthis case must have extremely-low frequency(ELF).
i
m
From Electrodynamics we know thatwhen an electromagnetic wave withfrequency and velocity incides on amaterial with relative permittivity
 f 
c
ε 
,relative magnetic permeability
μ 
andelectrical conductivity
σ 
, its
velocity isreduced 
to
ncv
=
where is the index of refraction of the material, given by [
n
5]
( ) ( )
3112
2
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ++==
ωε σ μ ε 
vcn
 
 
3
If 
ωε σ 
>>
,
 f 
π ω 
2
=
, Eq. (3) reduces to
( )
44
0
 f n
πε σ μ 
=
 
Thus, the wavelength of the incidentradiation (See Fig. 2) becomes
( )
54
mod
σ μ π λ λ 
 f nn f c f v
====
 
Fig. 2 – 
 Modified Electromagnetic Wave
.
Thewavelength of the electromagnetic wave can bestrongly reduced, but its frequency remains the same.
v
=
c
 
v
=
c
/
n
 
λ 
 
=
c
/
 f 
 
λ 
mod 
 
=
v
/
 f 
=
c
/
n
 f n
 
If a lamina with thickness equal to
ξ 
 contains atoms/m
n
3
,
 
then the number of atoms per area unit is
ξ 
n
. Thus, if theelectromagnetic radiation with frequencyincides on an area of the lamina itreaches
 f 
ξ 
nS 
atoms. If it incides on the
totalarea of the lamina
,, then the total numbeof atoms reached by the radiation is
 f 
ξ 
 f 
nS  N 
=
. The number of atoms per unit of volume, , is given by
n
 
( )
6
0
 A N n
 ρ 
=
 where is theAvogadro’s number;
kmoleatoms N 
/1002.6
260
×=
 ρ 
is the matter densityof the lamina (in
kg/m
3
) and
 A
is the molar mass(
kg/kmole
).
 
When an electromagnetic wave incideson the lamina, it strikes front atoms,where
 f 
 N 
m f  f 
n N 
φ 
,
m
φ 
is the “diameter” of the atom.
Thus, the electromagnetic waveincides effectively on an area
, where
m f 
 N 
=
241
mm
πφ 
=
is the cross section area of one atom.
 After these collisions, it carries outwith the other atoms
(See Fig.3)
.
collisions
n
 
Fig. 3 – 
Collisions inside the
lamina.
atom
 
m
Wave
Thus, the total number of collisions in thevolume
ξ 
is
( )( )
7
ξ φ ξ φ 
nnnnn N  N 
mmmlmlcollisions f collisions
==+=+=
 T
he power 
density,, of the radiation on thelamina can be expressed by
 D
( )
8
m f 
 N PP D
==
 We can express the
total mean number of collisions in each atom
,, by means othe following equation
1
n
 
( )
9
1
 N  N nn
collisions photonstotal
=
 Since in each collision a
momentum
 
λ 
h
istransferred to the atom, then the
total
 
momentum
transferred to the lamina will be
( )
λ 
h N n p
1
=Δ
. Therefore, in accordancewith Eq. (1), we can write that
( )( )
( )( )
101121 1121
202010
+==+=
λ λ λ λ 
collisions photonstotallilg
 N n N nmm
 

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