Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
86417632 Calc Temp Load Capable of Cable Neher McGrath

86417632 Calc Temp Load Capable of Cable Neher McGrath

Ratings: (0)|Views: 79 |Likes:

More info:

Published by: Ronie Edwin Carhuachin Velasquez on Jul 03, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/11/2012

pdf

text

original

 
The
Calculation
or
the
Temperature
Rise
and
Load
Capability
of
Cable
Systems
J.
H.
NEHER
M.
H.
McGRATH
MEMBER
AIEE
MEMBER
AIEE
IN
1932
D.
M.
Simmons'
published
a
series
of
articlesentitled,
"Calculation
of
the
Electrical
Problems
of
Underground
Cables."
Over
the
intervening
25
years
this
work
hasachieved
the
status
of
a
handbook
on
the
subject.
During
this
period,
however,
there
have
been
numer-
ous
developments
in
the
cable
art,
and
much
theoretical
and
experimental
work
hasbeen
done
witha
view
to
obtaining
more
accurate
methods
of
evaluating
the
parameters
involved.
The
advent
of
the
pipe-type
cable
system
has
emphasized
the
desirabilityof
a
more
rational
method
of
calculating
the
performance
of
cables
in
duct
in
orderthat
a
realistic
comparison
may
be
made
between
the
two
systems.
In
this
paper
the
authors
have
en-
deavored
to
extend
the
work
of
Simmonsby
presenting
under
one
coverthe
basic
principles
involved,
together
with
more
recently
developedprocedures
for
han-
dling
such
problems
as
the
effect
of
the
loading
cycle
and
the
temperature
rise
of
cables
in
various
types
of
duct
struc-
tures.
Included
as
wellare
expressionsrequired
in
the
evaluation
of
the
basic
parameters
for
certain
specialized
allied
procedures.
It
is
thought
thata
work
of
this
type
will
be
useful
notonly
as
a
guide
to
engineers
entering
the
field
and
as
a
reference
to
the
more
experienced,
but
particularly
as
a
basis
for
setting
up
com-
putation
methods
for
the
preparation
of
industry
load
capability
and
a-c/d-c
ratio
compilations.
The
calculation
of
the
temperature
rise
of
cable
systemsunder
essentially
steady-
state
conditions,
which
includes
the
effectof
operation
under
a
repetitive
load
cycle,
as
opposed
to
transient
temperature
rises
due
to
the
sudden
application
of
large
amounts
of
load,
is
a
relatively
simple
procedure
and
involves
only
the
applica-
tion
of
the
thermal
equivalents
of
Ohm's
and
Kirchoff's
Laws
to
a
relatively
simple
thermal
circuit.
Because
this
circuit
usually
has
a
number
of
parallel
paths
with
heat
flowsentering
at
several
points,
however,
care
must
be
exercised
in
the
method
used
of
expressing
the
heat
flows
and
thermal
resistances
involved,
and
differing
methods
are
used
by
various
en-
gineers.
The
method
employed
in
this
paper
has
been
selected
after
careful
con-
sideration
as
being
the
most
consistent
andmost
readily
handled
overthe
full
scope
of
the
problem.
All
losses
will
be
developed
on
the
basis
of
watts
per
conductor
foot.
The
heat
flows
and
temperature
rises
due
to
dielec-
tric
loss
and
to
current-produced
losseswill
be
treated
separately,
and,
in
the
lattercase,
all
heat
flows
will
be
expressed
in
terms
of
thecurrent
produced
loss
originat-
ing
in
one
foot
of
conductorby
means
of
multiplying
factors
which
take
into
ac-
count
the
added
losses
in
the
sheath
and
conduit.
In
general,
all
thermal
resistances
will
be
developed
on
the
basisof
theper
con-
ductor
heat
flow
throughthem.
In
the
caseof
underground
cablesystems,
it
is
convenient
toutilize
an
effective
thermal
resistance
for
the
earth
portion
of
the
thermal
circuit
which
includes
the
effect
of
the
loading
cycle
and
the
mutual
heat-
ing
effect
of
the
other
cable
of
the
system.
Allcables
in
the
system
will
be
considered
to
carry
the
same
load
currents
and
to
be
operating
under
the
same
load
cycle.
The
system
of
nomenclature
employed
is
in
accordance
wvith
that
adopted
by
the
Insulated
Conductor
Committee
as
stand-
ard,
and
differs
appreciably
from
that
used
in
many
of
the
references.
Thissystem
represents
an
attempt
to
utilize
in
so
far
as
possible
the
various
symbols
appearing
in
the
AmericanStandards
Association
Standards
for
Electrical
Quantities,
Me-
chanics,
Heatand
Thermo-Dynamics,
and
Hydraulics,
when
these
symbols
can
be
used
without
ambiguity.
Certain
symbols
which
have
long
been
used
by
cable
engineers
have
been
retained,
even
though
they
are
in
directconflict
with
the
above-mentioned
standards.
Nomenclature
(A
F)
=
attainment
factor,
per
unit
(pu)
A,
=
cross-section
area
of
a
shielding
tape
or
skid
wire,
square
inches
a
=
thermal
diffusivity,
square
inches
perhour
CI=
conductor
area,circular
inches
d
=
distance,
inches
d,2
etc.=
from
center
of
cable
no.
1
to
center
of
cable
no.
2
etc.
d,2'
etc.
=
from
center
of
cable
no.
1
to
image
of
cable
no.
2
etc.
d1j
etc.
=from
center
of
cable
no.
1
to
a
point
of
interference
dit'
etc.
=from
image
of
cable
no.
1
to
a
point
of
interference
D
=
diameter,
inches
D=
inside
of
annular
conductor
Dc=outside
of
conductor
D=
outside
of
insulation
Ds=outside
of
sheath
D.=
mean
diameter
of
sheath
D=
outside
of
jacket
DJ'=
effective
(circumscribing
circle)
ofseveral
cables
in
contact
D=
insideof
duct
wall,
pipeorconduit
De=
diameter
at
startof
theearthportion
of
the
thermal
circuit
Dz=fictitious
diameter
at
which
the
effectof
loss
factor
commences
E=line
to
neutral
voltage,kilovolts
(kv)
*e=coefficient
of
surface
emissivity
e
=specific
inductive
capacitance
ofinsula-tion
f=frequency,
cycles
per
second
F,
Fin1
=
products
of
ratios
of
distances
F(x)=derived
Bessel
function
of
x(Table
III
and
Fig.
1)
G
=geometric
factor
GI
=applying
to
insulationresistance(Fig.
2
of
reference
1)
C2
=
applying
to
dielectric
loss
(Fig.
2
of
reference
1)
Gb
=applying
to
a
duct
bank
(Fig.
2)
I=conductor
current,
kiloamperes
k,=skin
effect
correctionfactor
for
annular
and
segmentalconductors
kp=relative
transverse
conductivity
factor
for
calculating
conductor
proximity
effect
I=
lay
of
a
shielding
tape
or
skid
wire,inches
L=depth
of
referencecable
below
earth's
surface,
inches
Lb
=
depth
to
center
of
aduct
bank
(or
backfill),
inches
(If)=load
factor,
per
unit
(LF)
=loss
factor,
per
unit
n=number
of
conductorsper
cable
n'=number
of
conductors
within
a
stated
diameter
N=number
of
cables
or
cable
groups
in
a
system
P=perinmeter
of
aduct
bank
or
backfill,
inches
cos4-=power
factor
of
the
insulation
q,=ratio
of
the
sum
of
the
losses
in
the
conductors
and
sheaths
to
the
losses
in
the
conductors
q,=
ratioof
the
sum
of
the
losses
in
the
conductors,
sheath
and
conduit
to
the
losses
in
the
conductors
R
=electrical
resistance,
ohms
Rd
d-cresistance
of
conductor
Rae=
total
a-c
resistance
per
conductor
R,
=
d-cresistance
of
sheath
or
of
the
parallel
paths
in
a
shield-skid
wire
assembly
R-thermal
resistance
(per
conductor
losses)
thermalohm-feet
=
of
insulation
RI=of
jacket
=ad
between
cablesurface
and
surrounding
enclosure
Paper
57-660,
recommended
by
the
AIEE
Insulated
Conductors
Committee
and
approved
by
the
AIEE
Technical
Operations
Department
for
presentation
atthe
AIEE
Summer
General
Meeting,
Montreal,
Que.,
Canada,
June
24-28,
1957.
Manuscript
submitted
March
20,
1957;
made
available
for
printing
April
18,
1957.
J.
H.
NisaBR
15
with
the
Philadelphia
Electric
Company,
Philadelphia,
Pa..
and
M.
H.
MCGRATH
is
with
the
General
Cable
Corporation,
Perth
Amboy,
N.
J.
Neher,
McGrath-Temperature
andLoad
Capabilityof
Cable
Systems
OcToiBE:R
1957
52
 
0.09
04~~
~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
\000
0.25
li
t
%
sl
i
_
__t
~~~~0.002
0.07
ILL
~~~~~~~~~0.06
t1
~~~~~~~~0-.05
0.03
0.2
K
m_
t
F(°p025
0.10
0.02
2
2.5
3
4
5
6
768
9
10
15
20
30
40
50
60
o010
R
dc/k
Fig.
I
(above).
F(x)
and
F(xp')
as
functions
oF
Rd/k
Fig.
2
(right).
Gb
For
a
duct
bank
Rd=
of
duct
wall
or
asphalt
mastic
covering
R,.
=
otal
betweensheath
and
diameter
De
including
A,,
Ad
and
Rd
R,=between
conduit
and
ambient
R'=effective
between
diameter
De
and
ambient
earthincludingthe
effects
of
loss
factor
and
mutual
heating
by
W-portioP
other
cables
W,=ortior
Rea
effective
between
conductor
and
shield
ambient
for
conductor
loss
W
=portioi
Rcg'-
effective
transient
thermal
resistance
duit
of
cable
system
Wd
portlol
Rd
I=effective
between
conductor
and
am-
Xm
=mutua
bient
fordielectricloss
or
sb
An=
of
the
interference
effect
Y-
the
inci
Ra=
between
a
steam
pipe
and
ambient
YC=due
to
earth
duct
p
electricalresistivity,
circular
mil
ohms
to
si
per
foot
imnit
p-thermal
resistivity,
degreescentigrade
Y7
=due
to
centimeters
per
watt
or
s
s=distance
in
a
3-conductor
cable
between
due
the
effective
currentcenter
of
the
y
conductor
and
the
axis
of
the
cable,
Yp
=due
tc
inches
or
cc
S=axial
spacing
between
adjacent
cables,
Ya
=
ue
to
inches
1,
T=thickness
(as
indicated),
inches
General
(
T=temperature,
degreescentigrade
Therm
Ta
of
ambient
air
or
earth
T
=of
conductor
Tm
=
mean
temperature
of
medium
THE
CALci
AT=temperature
rise,
degreescentigrade
RISE
ATC
=of
conductor
due
to
current
produced
losses
The
tem
A
Td
=
f
conductor
due
to
dielectric
loss
of
a
able
a
=T
Iof
a
cable
due
to
extraneous
heat
be
conside
source
b
osd
r=
inferred
temperature
of
zero
resistance,
temperatw
degreescentigrade(C)(used
in
which
may
correcting
Rdc
andR,
to
tempera-
current
pr(
tures
other
than
20
C)
referred
to
Vw=
wind
velocity,
miles
per
hour
refer
to
W=losses
developed
in
a
cable,
watts
per
tor,
sheat
conductor
foot
produced
-1
1.
:,
.0
1)
cr-
s
e
w
9
iN
t.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
.2
-i
-
-
-
-.
e-00
2.5
2.0
<21
0
1.0-_X
_L-22r
7
.
6
:
Fk000
[
T
1§Mi~~~~o,
01
.5
-
-T-
.3
I
.7
._
.l
.2
.
.5
.?
.
RATIO
Lb/P
a
developed
in
theconductor
n
developed
im
thesheath
or
d
In
developed
in
the
pipe
or
con-
in
developed
in
the
dielectric
J1
reactance,
conductor
to
sheath
hield,
microhms
per
footrement
of
a-c/d-c
ratio,
pu
losses
originating
in
the
con-
;or,
having
components
Yc.
due
kdn
effect
and
Ycpdue
to
prox-
y
effect
losses
originating
in
the
sheath
shield,
having
components
YJC
to
circulating
current
effect
and
due
to
eddy
current
effect
o
losses
originating
in
thepipe
onduit
losses
originating
in
the
armor
Considerations
of
the
dI
Circuit
ULATION
Op
TEMPERATURE
perature
rise
of
the
conductor
tbove
ambient
temperature
may
ered
as
being
composed
of
a
re
rise
due
to
its
own
losses,
y
be
divided
into
a
rise
due
to
oduced
(I2R)
losses
(hereinafter
merely
as
losses)in
the
conduc-
h
and
conduit
AT:
and
the
rise
by
its
dielectric
loss
ATd.
Thus
TC
Ta
=
A
.
+
A
Td
degreescentigrade
(1)
Each
of
these
component
temperature
rises
may
be
considered
as
the
resultof
a
rate
of
heat
flow
expressed
in
watts
per
foot
through
a
thermal
resistance
ex-
pressed
in
thermal
ohm
feet
(degrees
centi-
grade
feet
per
watt);
in
otherwords,the
radial
rise
in
degrees
centigrade
for
a
heat
flow
of
one
watt
uniformly
distributed
overa
conductor
length
of
one
foot.
Since
the
losses
occur
at
severalposi-
tions
in
the
cable
system,
the
heat
flow
in
the
thermal
circuitwill
increase
in
steps.
It
is
convenient
to
express
all
heat
flowsin
terms
of
the
loss
per
footof
conductor,
and
thus
AT-
=
Wc(R
+
qsRs+qAR)
degrees
centigrade
(2)
in
which
W,
represents
the
losses
in
one
conductor
and
R,
is
the
thermal
resistance
of
the
insulation,
qs
is
the
ratio
of
the
sum
of
the
losses
in
the
conductors
and
sheath
to
the
losses
in
the
conductors,
is
the
total
thermal
resistance
betweensheath
and
conduit,
qois
the
ratio
of
the
sum
of
the
losses
in
conductors,
sheath
and
conduit,
to
theconductor
losses,
and
A.
Neher,
McGrath-Temperature
andLoad
CapabilityofCable
Systems
la
40
z
i.
753
OcToBim
1957
 
is
the
thermal
resistance
between
the
conduit
and
ambient.
In
practice,
the
load
carried
by
a
cable
is
rarely
constant
and
varies
according
to
a
daily
load
cycle
having
a
load
factor
(f).
Hence,
the
losses
in
the
cable
will
varyaccording
tothe
corresponding
daily
loss
cycle
having
a
loss
factor
(LF).
From
an
examination
of
a
large
number
of
load
cycles
and
their
corresponding
load
and
lossfactors,
the
followinggeneral
rela-
tionship
between
load
factor
and
loss
factor
hasbeen
found
to
exist.I
(LF)=Q.3
(lf)+0.7
(If)2
perunit
(3)
In
order
to
determine
the
maximum
temperature
rise
attained
by
a
buried
cable
systemunder
a
repeated
dailyload
cycle,
the
losses
and
resultant
heat
flows
are
calculated
on
the
basisof
the
maxi-
mum
load
(usually
taken
as
the
average
current
for
that
hour
of
the
daily
load
cycle
during
which
the
average
current
is
the
highest,
i.e.
thedaily
maximum
one-
hour
average
load)
onwhich
the
loss
factor
is
based
and
the
heat
flow
in
the
last
part
of
the
earth
portion
of
the
thermal
circuit
is
reduced
by
the
factor
(LF).
If
this
reduction
is
considered
to
start
at
a
point
in
the
earth
corresponding
to
the
diameter
Dz,s
equation
2
becomes
A
T-
WC
[R
j+q,Rse
+
qc(Rez
+
(L
F)Rraa)J
degreescentigrade
(4)
In
effect
this
means
thatthe
tempera-
ture
rise
from
conductor
to
DA
is
made
to
depend
on
the
heat
loss
corresponding
to
the
maximum
load
whereas
the
tempera-
ture
rise
from
diameter
D.
to
ambient
is
made
to
depend
on
the
average
loss
over
a
24-hour
period.
Studies
indicatethatthe
procedure
of
assuming
a
fictitious
critical
diameter
D,
at
whichan
abruptchange
occurs
in
loss
factor
from
100%
to
actual
will
give
results
which
very
closely
approximate
those
obtained
by
rigoroustransient
analysis.
For
cablesor
duct
in
air
where
the
thermal
storage
capacity
of
the
system
is
relatively
small,
the
maxi-
mum
temperature
rise
is
based
upon
the
heat
flow
dorresponding
to
maximum
load
without
reduction
of
any
part
of
the
thermal
circuit.
When
a
number
of
cables
are
installed
close
together
in
the
earth
or
in
a
duct
bank,each
cable
will
have
a
heating
effect
upon
all
of
the
others.
In
calculating
the
temperature
rise
of
any
one
cable,
it
is
convenient
to
handle
the
heating
effects
of
theother
cables
of
the
system
by
suitably
modifying
the
last
term
of
equation
4.
This
is
permissible
since
it
is
assumed
that
all
the
cables
are
carrying
equal
cur-
rents,
and
are
operating
on
the
same
load
cycle.
Thus
for
an
N-cable
system
A
TC
Wc(Rg+qsRsa+qe[Rx+(LF)
X
(fRxaM+N-1)fRPaD
(S)
=
Wc(Ri+qeRsa+qsR,')
degreescentigrade
(SA)
where
the
term
in
parentheses
is
indicated
by
the
effective
thermal
resistance
R/.
The
temperature
rise
due
to
dielectric
loss
is
a
relatively
smallpart
of
the
total
temperature
rise
of
cable
systems
op-erating
at
the
lower
voltages,
but
at
higher
voltages
it
constitutes
an
appre-
ciable
part
and
must
be
considered.Al-
though
the
dielectriclosses
are
dis-
tributed
throughout
the
insulation,
it
may
be
shown
that
for
single
conductor
cable
and
multiconductor
shielded
cable
with
round
conductors
the
correct
temperature
rise
is
obtained
by
considering
for
tran-sient
and
steady
state
that
all
of
the
dielectric
loss
Wd
occursat
the
middle
ofthe
thermal
resistance
between
conduc-
tor
and
sheath
oralternately
for
steady-
state
conditions
alone
thatthe
tempera-
ture
rise
between
conductor
and
sheath
for
a
given
lossin
the
dielectric
is
half
as
much
as
if
that
loss
were
in
the
conductor.In
the
case
of
multiconductor
belted
cables,
however,
the
conductors
are
taken
as
the
source
of
the
dielectric
loss.'
The
resulting
temperature
rise
due
to
dielectric
loss
ATd
may
be
expressed
ATd
=
WdRda'
degrees
centigrade
(6)
in
which
the
effective
thermal
resistance
Rdar
is
based
upon
Ri,
Rk5,
and
R,'(at
unity
loss
factor)
according
to
the
particular
case.
The
temperature
rise
at
points
in
the
cable
system
other
than
at
the
con-
ductor
may
be
determined
readily
from
the
foregoing
relationships.
THE
CALCULATION
OF
LOAD
CAPABILITr
In
many
cases
the
permissible
maxi-
mum
temperature
of
the
conductor
is
fixed
and
the
magnitude
of
the
conductor
current
(load
capability)
required
to
produce
this
temperature
is
desired.
Equation
5(A)
may
be
written
in
the
form
ATc
=I2Rdc(l
+
Yc)Aca'
degreescentigrade
(7)
in
which
the
quantity
Rdc
(1+
Ye)
which
will
be
evaluated
later
representsthe
effective
electrical
resistance
of
the
con-
ductor
in
microhms
per
foot,
and
which
when
multiplied
by
I2
(I
in
kiloamperes)
will
equal
the
loss
Wc
in
watts
per
conduc-
tor
foot
actually
generated
in
the
conduc-
tor;
and
Rca'
is
the
effective
thermal
resistance
of
the
thermal
circuit.
ca
R
t
+
q8Rxe
+
qcR,'
thermalohm-feet
(8)
From
equation
1
it
follows
that
J=.i
-(Ta+ATd)
kiloamperes
(9)
IRde(l1+
Yc)R?ca
Table
1.
ElectricalResistivity
oF
Various
Materials
p
Circular
Mil
Ohms
per
Foot
Material
at
20
C
t,
C
Copper
(100%
IACS*)
........
10.371
...
234.6
Aluminum
(61%
IACS)
.......
17.002...
228.1
Commercial
Bronze
(43.6%
...
23.8.....564
IACS)
(90
Cu-10
Zn)
Brass
(27.3%
IACS)
..........
38.0
.....912
(70
Cu-30
Zn)
Lead
(7.84%
IACS)
...........
132.3
.....
236
*
International
Annealed
Copper
Standard.
Calculation
of
Losses
and
Associated
Parameters
CALCULATION
OF
D-C
RESISTANCES
The
resistanceof
the
conductor
may
bedeterminedfrom
the
following
expressions
which
include
a
lay
factor
of
2%;
see
Table
I.
Rdc
-C
microhms
per
foot
at
20
C
C1
(10)
12.9
cpe
=
Cl
for
100%
IACS
copper
CI
conductor
at
75
C
(IOA)
21.2
for
61%
IACS
aluminum
at
75
C
(lOB)
where
CI
represents
the
conductor
size
in
circular
inches
and
where
Pr
represents
theelectricalresistivity
in
circular
mil
ohms
per
foot.
To
determine
thevalueof
resistance
at
temperature
T
multiply
the
resistance
at
20
C
by
(r+T)/(r+20)
where
r
is
theinferred
temperature
of
zero
resistance.
The
resistance
of
the
sheath
is
given
by
the
expressions
R,
=
Ps
1Amicrohms
per
foot
at
20
C
(II)
4Dsmt
Rs
=37-9
for
leadat
50
C
D8aM
(IIA)
=4.75
for
61%
aluminum
at
50
C
(hIB)
where
Dsm
is
the
mean
diameter
ofthe
sheath
and
I
is
its
thickness,
both
in
inches
D,.m
D,-t
inches
(12)
The
resistance
of
intercalated
shields
or
skid
wires
may
be
determined
from
the
expression
Rs
(per
pathi)-
1h+(
T
D
)m
4As
I
microhms
per
foot
at
20
C
(13)
where
A.
is
thecross-section
area
of
the
Neher,
McGrath-Temperature
andLoad
Capability
ofCable
Systems
OCTOBER
1957
54

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->