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Low Z Differential Relay Protection Settings

Low Z Differential Relay Protection Settings

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Published by: phelo1 on Jul 03, 2012
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03/03/2013

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Differential Relay Protection Settings
 
Low impedance differential protection systems typically have 3 to 5 settings required to
properly define the restraint characteristic of the relay. See Fig. 4.2.1. The ensuing discussion
will mainly focus on differential protection for power transformers. Generator and motor diff
are included where applicable.
 I
Dmin
= minimum differential current (secondary) required to operate the relay
 I
TP1
 
= turning point 1
 I
TP
2
= turning point 2
 S
1
= Slope 1 setting
 S
2
= Slope 2 setting
 I
TOT
 
= Total current through the differential system. Measure of system loading.
 I
REST,
I
DIFF(min)
 
= For a given value of I
TOT
, this is the restraint current applied by the relay oralternatively the minimum differential current required to operate the relay.
 I
DIFF
-HI
= Should the differential current exceed this threshold, operationresults irrespective of the restraint current applied
 The settings to be considered are I
Dmin
, I
TP
2
, S
1
, S
2
and I
DIFF
-HI
. These are
genericrepresentations of the settings. They will differ from one manufacturer to the next.
 Before proceeding to discuss the settings, some fundamental concepts first. Consider theequivalent circuit of a two-ended circulating current differential protection system as shown in
Fig. 4.2.2 with a throughfault current flowing from End P to End Q.
I
REST
,
I
DIFF(min)
 
I
TOT
 
I
Dmin
 
S
1
S
2
Operating
 
Region
 R
estraint
 
Region
 I
TP1
 
I
TP2
 
Fig. 4.2.1
 
Typical restraint characteristic of a biased differential relay.
 
 
 
RELAY
Q2P2
CTP
LDP
P2P2
RIIRRIE
 
(4.2.1)
 
RELAY
P2Q2
CTQ
LDQ
Q2Q2
RIIRRIE
 
(4.2.2)
 The limiting case for a low impedance relay (relay current prevails over relay impedance) isfor the case when R
RELAY
 
= 0, i.e. a dead short from M
1
to M
2
. Equations (4.2.1) and (4.2.2)
now become,
 
CTP
LDP
P2P2
RRIE
 
(4.2.3)
 
CTQ
LDQ
Q2Q2
RRIE
 
(4.2.4)
 For the case when both ends see the same primary current, the turns ratios are identical andthere is no saturation, then I
21P
 
= I
21Q
. Thus I
2P
 
+ I
MP
= I
2Q
 
+ I
MQ
. Relay current is thus I
R
=I
2Q
-
I
2P
= I
MP
 
-
I
MQ
.
Let the relay operating current be I
ROC
. Then to ensure stability must have
I
R
=
I
MP
 
-
I
MQ
<
I
ROC
.What the above states is that for throughfault stability, the differential current is the difference
between the magnetisation currents. These in turn depend on :
 
a)
 
CT magnetisation curve
 
b)
 
Resistances in the CT circuit
 
CT P
Fig. 4.2.2 Equivalent circuit of a circulating current differential protection system
 
R
RELAY
 
CT Q
 X
P
Object to be protected
 R
CT
Q
R
LD
Q
I
R
V
R
X
Q
R
CT
P
R
LD
P
END P
 
END Q
 M
2
M
1
I
21P
 
I
MP
I
2P
 
I
2Q
I
MQ
 
I
21Q
 
E
2P
E
2Q
 
 
Thus, non-zero I
DI
FF
 
can still result if the CTs are identical but the sum of CT and leadresistances are substantially different. This is the case when the relay is not located at the
electrical midpoint 
of the secondary system and/or the CT resistances are different.
 On the other hand, non-zero I
DIFF
 
can also result if the CT mag curves are not identical.Different magnetisation currents are required to produce identical induced voltages, the
difference between the mag currents now seen by the relay.
 
This translates into the requirement that the minimum current required to operate the 
relay should be > maximum difference between the mag currents at the two ends. Thus 
ROC 
. > max(I 
MP 
, I 
MQ 
) or even more conservatively, I 
ROC 
> I 
MP 
+ I 
MQ 
.
The minimum current required to operate the relay system assuming a single ended fault may
be approximated as follows:
 
ROC
MQ
MP
FOC
IIINI
 
(4.2.5)
 I
FOC
= minimum primary fault current required to operated the differential relay
 I
MP
, I
MQ
 
= respective CT magnetisation currents
 I
ROC
 
= minimum differential current required to operated the relay (usually
settable)
 N = number of turns of the CT secondary winding (assuming primary winding
= 1 turn)
 
As I
ROC
>> I
MP
, I
MQ
above can be simplified to,
ROCFOC
INI
 
(4.2.6)
 
CT P
Fig. 4.2.3 Equivalent circuit for a single
-
ended fault
 
R
RELAY
 
CT Q
 X
P
Object to be protected
 R
CT
Q
R
LD
Q
I
ROC
V
R
X
Q
R
CT
P
R
LD
P
END P
 
END Q
 M
2
M
1
I
21P
 
I
MP
I
2P
 
I
MQ
 
E
2P
E
2Q
 

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