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The Evolving Threat of AMR_WHO 2012

The Evolving Threat of AMR_WHO 2012

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Published by: Erie GusNellyanti on Jul 04, 2012
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The evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance
 
Options for action
 
 
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
The evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance: options for action.1.Anti-infective agents - adverse effects. 2.Drug resistance, microbial - drug effects. 3.Anti-bacterial agents -administration and dosage. 4.Drug utilization. 5.Health policy. I.World Health Organization.ISBN 978 92 4 150318 1 (NLM classi
cation: QV 250)
© World Health Organization 2012
 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27,Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int).Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercialdistribution – should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site (http://www.who.int/about/ licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html).The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expressionof any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of anycountry, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.The mention of speci
c companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsedor recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are notmentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capitalletters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information containedin this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, eitherexpressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In noevent shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.Design by GPS PUBLISHING, France.
 
iii
This publication has been produced by the WHO Patient Safety Programme as part of its solid commitment topromoting safer care worldwide. It is the result of an international consultation process started in 2008, whichgathered input from over 50 international experts in the
eld of antimicrobial resistance.Coordinated by WHO, under the auspices of Sir Liam Donaldson, WHO Envoy for Patient Safety, with theleadership and expert advice of David Heymann, Chairman of the Health Protection Agency, UK, and DidierPittet, Director of the Infection Control Programme, University of Geneva Hospitals, Switzerland, world expertsworked for over two years on
ve main technical areas, which are central to the AMR problem, in order toprovide the best evidence and the appraisal of experiences that form the core of this book.The WHO Patient Safety Programme is indebted to the international experts who contributed to this process. A full list of contributors is provided at the end of the book. The working group leads and main authors wereFrank M. Aaerestrup, Technical University of Denmark; Awa Aidara-Kane, World Health Organization; Otto Carsand Andreas Heddini, both at Action on Antibiotic Resistance (ReAct), Sweden; Shaoyu Chang and AnthonySo, at Duke University, USA; Barry Cookson, at the Health Protection Agency, UK; Petra Gastmeier at CharitéUniversity Hospital, Germany; Lindsay Grayson at the University of Melbourne, Australia; Hajo Grundmann, atthe National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands; Stuart Levy, from Tufts UniversitySchool of Medicine, USA; Thomas F O’Brien and John M Stelling, at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, USA;and Wing-Hong Seto, from Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China. The working groups comprisedspecialists in AMR who together brought their knowledge and understanding of the risks and challenges in the
ght against AMR and of the most effective interventions to tackle the problem.Thanks are due to the following WHO Patient Safety Programme staff: Elizabeth Mathai for her lead in harmonizingand editing the contributions of the different experts and Gerald Dziekan who as well as editing, steered andcoordinated the development process from consultation to
nalization. The programme’s Coordinator, ItziarLarizgoitia Jauregui, its Director, Najeeb Al-Shorbaji, and Assistant Director-General, Marie-Paule Kieny,provided overall supervision of the project.Thanks are also due to the WHO technical teams and international experts who developed the 2001 WHOGlobal Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, and the 2011 World Health Day policy briefs, ledby Mario Raviglione, Director of Stop TB, and Hiroki Nakatani, Assistant Director-General, and the Stop TBTeam, as well as to those who reviewed the various drafts.The
nancial contribution of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) through Action on Antibiotic Resistance (ReAct), Uppsala, Sweden towards design of this publication is gratefullyacknowledged.
Acknowledgements

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