# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

1Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

Coax Square OuterRatings: (0)|Views: 26|Likes: 0

Published by flegias

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/99075177/Coax-Square-Outer

07/04/2012

text

original

Notes on the characteristic impedance of coax with a squareouter conductor

Kevin Schmidt, W9CF

Abstract

These are some notes on calculating the characteristic impedance of a coaxial line witha square cross section outer conductor and a circular inner conductor. They were written inresponse to comments by Zack Lau, KH6CP, in May 1995 QEX that some handbooks had a “the-oretically determined” formula for the characteristic impedance of coaxial cable with a squareouter conductor that did not agree with the empirically determined result 138

log

10

(1

.

08

D/a

)where

D

is the side of the square, and

a

is the diameter of the inner conductor. These are somenotes that I sent Zack in September 1996 showing that transmission line theory predicts the1.08 factor. Apparently, some handbooks suﬀered from a propagation of misprints.The TEM mode characteristic impedance of coaxial lines is given by

Z

0

=

L/C,

(1)where

L

and

C

are the inductance and capacitance per unit length. For an air dielectric andperfect cylindrical conductors, the waves travel at the speed of light so that

L

and

C

are relatedby

c

=1

√

LC ,

(2)which when combined with Eq. 1 shows that only the capacitance per unit length is needed tocalculate the characteristic impedance,

Z

0

=1

cC .

(3)One way to calculate the capacitance per unit length of a cylindrical structure is to realizethat since there is no charge between the inner and outer conductors, the potential must be asolution of Laplace’s equation

2

Φ = 0

.

(4)The capacitance can be calculated by solving Laplaces equation with the boundary conditionthat the potential is one volt on the outer conductor and zero volts on the inner conductor. Thecharge per unit length on either conductor is the capacitance per unit length.For the coaxial case, the DC ﬁeld does not change along the length of the coax. Laplacesequation therefore reduces to the two-dimensional equation,

∂

2

Φ

∂x

2

+

∂

2

Φ

∂y

2

= 0

,

(5)

1

where x and y are cartesian coordinates of the cross sectional area. For a square cross sectionouter conductor, the potential must have the symmetry of the square. A general solution toLaplaces equation with that symmetry is,Φ =

b

1

ln(

r

) +

m

=1

(

b

m

+1

r

4

m

+

a

m

+1

r

−

4

m

)cos(4

mφ

)

,

(6)where

φ

= tan

−

1

(

y/x

), and

r

2

=

x

2

+

y

2

.I take the case where the radius of the inner conductor is 1, and half the side length of theouter conductor is

D

. Enforcing the boundary condition of zero volts on the inner conductormakes Φ = 0 at

r

= 1, which means

a

i

=

−

b

i

. The solution for Φ is thenΦ =

b

1

ln(

r

) +

m

=1

b

m

+1

cos(4

mφ

)(

r

4

m

−

r

−

4

m

)

.

(7)I must now enforce the condition that Φ = 1 on the outer conductor. I do this by pointmatching. I simply take points evenly spaced in the angle

φ

and require that Φ be one on theouter conductor at these angles. This gives a set of linear equations for the coeﬃcients

b

i

thatcan be solved. Speciﬁcally for

N

coeﬃcents, I require that

b

1

ln(

r

i

) +

N

−

1

m

=1

b

m

+1

cos(4

mφ

i

)(

r

4

mi

−

r

−

4

mi

) = 1

,

(8)for all i values 1 to

N

, and

φ

i

=(2

i

−

1)

π

8

N ,r

i

=

D

cos(

φ

i

)

.

(9)Once the

b

i

values are solved, I need to calculate the charge per unit length. The chargedensity on a conductor is the normal electric ﬁeld times the dielectric constant. In our case thisis

0

. The normal electric ﬁeld is most easily calculated for the inner conductor. Integratingaround the circular inner conductor immediately gives zero contribution for all but the

b

1

term.The

b

1

term give a charge per unit length of

q

= 2

π

0

b

1

,

(10)and the characteristic impedance is

Z

0

=12

π

0

cb

1

=60

b

1

.

(11)Before looking at the numerical results for larger N, I can solve analytically for the case of

N

= 1. In that case I have a purely logarithmic potential and match the potential to 1 at thepoint given by

φ

=

π/

8. Eq. 8 becomes,

b

1

ln

D

cos(

π/

8)

= 1

,

(12)and evaluating1cos(

π/

8)= 1

.

08

,

(13)

2

the characteristic impedance is approximately

Z

0

= 60ln(1

.

08

D

)

,

(14)in agreement with the empirical value. The results for larger values of

N

are easily calculatedon the computer. One way to write the results is as

Z

0

= 60ln(

α

(

D

)

D

)

.

(15)

Z

0

can only depend on the ratio of

D/a

where

D

is the outer conductor halfside and

a

isthe inner conductor radius. This ratio is the same as the outer conductor side divided by theinner conductor diameter, so that can be substituted as well. Substituting

D/a

for D gives theﬁnal result.Table

??

shows the calculated

α

and

Z

0

with N=10, for

D/a

from 1.1 to 6.0. The value startsat 1.06 at

D/a

= 1

.

1 where

Z

0

= 9 Ohms.

α

becomes 1.08 for

D/a

= 1

.

275 where

Z

0

= 19Ohms. It remains at 1.08 thereafter. The asymptotic value of

α

is actually 1.0787. I haverepeated the calculation with N=20, with no change in the results indicating good convergence.The empirical value of 1.08 should work ﬁne.A ﬁnal note for the compulsive nitpickers. The value 60 is really two times the numericalvalue of the speed of light times the appropriate power of ten. That is it is really 2

×

29

.

9792458or 59.9584916.

3

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for one month

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with EmailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd