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Research Design

Research Design

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Published by Ct Hajar

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Published by: Ct Hajar on Jul 04, 2012
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Discuss the following statement: “The researcher should always attempt to develop anoptimal design for every research project.”
Research has been defined in a number of different ways. A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttleworth (2008), "In the broadest sense of the word, thedefinition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for theadvancement of knowledge.
Another definition of research is given by Creswell (2008) whostates that "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increaseour understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect datato answer the question, and present an answer to the question. In addition, the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "A studious inquiry orexamination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery andinterpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, orpractical application of such new or revised theories or laws".In overall, research is the systematic investigation into existing or newknowledge.Itis used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new orexisting problems, supporttheorems,or develop newtheories.A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. In order to test the validity of instruments, procedures,or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole.The primary purposes of basic research(as opposed toapplied research)are documentation,discovery,interpretation,or theresearch and developmentof methods and systems for the advancement of humanknowledge.Approaches to research dependonepistemologies,which vary considerably both within and between humanities andsciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic,social, business, etc.Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessingof curiosity.This research providesscientificinformation and theories for the explanation of 
thenatureand the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientificresearch can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic andapplication disciplines. Besides, scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging thestanding of an academic institution, such as business schools, but some argue that such is aninaccurate assessment of the institution.Research in the humanities involves different methods such as forexamplehermeneuticsandsemiotics,and a different, morerelativistepistemology.  Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, butinstead explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, andcontext can be social, historical, political, cultural or ethnic. An example of research in thehumanities is historical research, which is embodied inhistorical method. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepenunderstanding of a topic or issue. Therefore, it is very important for the researcher to developan optimal design for every research project. The research process is designed after havingidentified the variables in a problem situation and developed the theoretical framework.There are ten basic aspects of research design which are the purpose of the study, the types of investigation, the extent of researcher interference, the study setting, the unit of analysis, thetime horizon, the measurement, the data collection methods, the sampling design, and thedata analysis.To be noted, the sophisticated the research, the more cost and time are needed to getthe solution. So, the research design is specifically asking by each aspect in order tomaximize the accuracy of the solution commensurate with the larger investment of resources.
1. Purpose of study:
This is a method of solving problem, where the phenomena of study are understooddigging more information in that study. There are three nature of study, which areexplanatory, descriptive, or hypothesis testing. It is depends on the stage which knowledgeabout the research topic. The purpose of study is the stage where we design the decisions,whether we choose explanatory stage which we attempt to explore new areas of organizational research, or descriptive stage where we try to describe certain characteristics
of the phenomena on which main interest, or hypothesis testing stage where we examinewhether or not the conjectured relationships have been substantiated and an answer to theresearch question has been obtained.
2. Type of investigation:
A researcher should determine whether a causal or a co-relational study is needed tofind an answer to the issue at hand. The former is done when it is necessary to establish adefinitive cause and effect relationship. However if all that the researcher wants is a mereidentification of the important factors associated with the problem then a correlation study iscalled for. In the former case the researcher is keen on delineating one or more factors thatare undoubtedly causing a problem. In other words the intention of the researcher conductinga causal study is to be able to state that variable X cause's variable Y. so when variable X isremoved or altered in some way, problem Y is solved.Quite often however it is not just one or more variables that cause a problem inorganizations. Given the fact that most of the time there are multiple factors that influenceone another and the problem in a chainlike fashion, the researcher might be asked to identifythe crucial factors associated with the problem rather than establish a cause and effectrelationship. The study in which the researcher wants to delineate the cause of one or moreproblems is called a casual study.
3. Extent of researcher interference:
This case is normal occurrence in normal working environment. There are two typesof interference; the study undertaken is either causal or correctional. Causal relationshipmeans the studies conducted is to establish the cause and effect relationship. This type of relationship is where the researchers try to manipulate certain variables in order to study theeffects of such manipulation on the dependent variables of the study. The correlation study isapplied in the natural environment of the organization with the minimal interference by theresearcher with the normal flow of work. It can be said the correlation study is conducted ininitial stage of finding the interference of the researcher. Then, follow by the causal study

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