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54471170 SemSim CCNA Cram Sheets

54471170 SemSim CCNA Cram Sheets

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OSI Reference Model
OSI Reference Model
The OSI model is a layered model to define thestandards for network communications. The controlis passed from one layer to the next, starting at theapplication layer in one station, and proceeding tothe bottom layer over the media to the next station.This model contains 7 layers:
-Application Layer:
Provides network access for applications. Defines processes for user authentication.Devices: GatewaysData Unit: DataProtocols: HTTP, POP3, SMTP, FTP, SNMP,Telnet.
-Presentation Layer:
Determines the form used toexchange data between networked computers(ASCII or EBCDIC). Performs protocol conversion,encryption and data compression. Ensures thatdata from one system is compatible with another system.Devices: Gateways and RedirectorsData Unit: Data
-Session Layer:
 Allows applications tocommunicate with each other over a network byestablishing a communication session,synchronizing the involved computers, andterminating the session.Devices: GatewayData Unit: Data
-Transport Layer:
Manages and optimizes thetransfer of data from the source to the destination,transforms messages into smaller formats, provideserror free delivery and error handling functions.
Device: GatewayData Unit: SegmentProtocols: NetBEUI, TCP, UDP, SPX, and NWLink
-Network Layer:
Provides connectivity and pathselection between two end systems. Handlesaddressing, translates logical addresses and namesto physical addresses, performs routing and trafficsequencing and congestion control.Devices: Router and Brouter Data Unit: PacketProtocols: IP, IPX, NWLink, and NetBEUI.
-Data Link Layer:
Broken down into two sublayers.The Logical Link Control (LLC
frames messages for transmission, performs error detection andcorrection, checks the integrity of receivedmessages, and ensures proper sequencing of transmitted data. Defines a sub layer, the Media Access Control (MAC) that appends the MACaddress of the next hop to the frame header andcontrols protocol access to the physical layer.Devices: Switch, Bridge, and Brouter Data Unit: Frame
-Physical Layer:
electrical, mechanical,procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physicallink between end systems. Consists of the cables,connectors and associated hardware to implement anetwork.Devices: Multiplexer and Repeater, Physical MediaData Unit: Bit
Network Design
Ethernet is typically a Local Area Network (LAN)technology covered by the IEEE 802.3 standardsproviding transmission speeds of 10 megabits to1000 megabits per second. The standards alsodiffer as far as the type of cabling and the allowedlength of the cabling.
Ethernet Network Elements:
The network nodesare of two types:
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE):
Define either thesource or the destination of data frames. Definesdevices such as PCs, workstations, file servers, or print servers.
Data Communication Equipment (DCE):
Definesintermediate network devices that receive andforward frames across the network, such asrepeaters, and routers, or communications interfaceunits such as network interface cards and modems.
-The Ethernet MAC Sublayer:
The MAC sublayer communicates with the LogicalLink Control sub-layer above it allowing it to accessand speak to the upper layer network protocols.
-Ethernet Frame Format: Ethernet defines followingbasic data frame format required for all MACimplementations:
Preamble (PRE)-
7 bytes, informs stations aboutarrival of frames.
State-of-frame Delimiter (SOF)-
1 byte, indicates thatthe next bit is the left-most bit in the left-most byte of the destination address.
Destination Address-
6 bytes, defines theidentification of the stations that should receive theframe.
Source Address-
6 bytes, identifies the sendingstation. The left-most bit is always 0.
4 bytes, indicates the number of MAC-client data bytes.
- Defines sequence of n-bytes of data where nis less than or equal to 1500. If it is too small (< 46,the field must be padded to equal 46.
Frame Check Sequence (FCS
)- 4bytes, contains a32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) value tocheck the accuracy of data.-Frame Transmission:
Half Duplex Transmission (CSMA/CD access Mode):
 Defines a method for stations to share a commonmedia over the network. The CSMA/CD access rulesare governed by following protocol’s acronym:
Carrier sense:
Stations continuously check theavailability of the carrier.
Multiple access:
Stations begin transmission anytime when the carrier is free.
Collision detection:
Stations may begin transmissionat any time. But they should be able to detectcollision, if any, and retransmit the data.
Full Duplex Transmission:
 Allows simultaneous both-ways transmission over point-to-point links. Containsno media issues, no collisions, and noretransmissions.-Frame Reception: Reception is same for Full-duplexand Half-duplex transmissions.
 If two or more electrical signals were sent at thesame time, they would overlap and collide, makingboth signals meaningless. To handle this situationEthernet defined a specification known as carrier sense multiple access with collision detection(CSMA/CD). CSMA/CD ensures that only onedevice sends traffic on the network at a time. This isaccomplished via the asymmetric sending of information at random times and detection of collions.
Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet, also known as 100BASE-TX, is anetworking standard that supports 100 Mbps Datatransfer rate. It is based on the Ethernet standard.Fast Ethernet is covered by the IEEE 802.3ustandards. Fast Ethernet is based on CSMA/CDLAN ACCESS methods.Cable Type: Copper with maximum length 100 m
Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet, also known as 1000BASE-LX or 1000BASE-SX, defines a networking standard thatsupports 1Gbps Data transfer rate. It retains theCSMA/CD access methods same as originalEthernet. It supports both full-duplex and half-duplex operations.Cable Type: Fiber with maximum length 550m(SX) 5 km (LX)
-Physical Layer:
Uses the combination of originalEthernet technologies and ANSIX3T11 Fiber channel specifications. Supports following media:-1000Base: SX850 nm laser on multi mode fiber -1000Base: LX1300 nm laser on both single andmulti mode fiber -1000Base: CX Short haul copper “twinax” STPcable
-MAC Layer:
The MAC layer uses CSMA/CDprotocol. The length of the cable is limited by theCSMA/CD protocol.-Carrier Extension: Defines a means of supporting802.3 minimum and maximum frame sizes.-Packet Bursting: Defines an extension of Carrier Extension. Adds a burst of packets to the Carrier Extension.
Wireless Basics:
Wireless works through radiosignals to transmit data from one point to another.-An ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless networkconsists of a number of computers each equippedwith a wireless networking interface card.
-IEEE 802.11:
 A standard defining all aspects of Radio Frequency Wireless networking.-Makes provisions for data rates of 1,2,5,and 11Mbps.-Calls for operation in the 2.4 - 2.4835 and the 5GHz range.-Specifies a carrier sense multiple access withcollision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol.
IEEEStandardMax Speed Frequency
802.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHZ802.11b 11 Mbps 2.4 GHZ802.11g 54 Mbps 2.4 GHZ
The types of cables used in networks areTwisted Pair Cable, Coaxial Cable, Fiber OpticCable, Wireless LANs, Cable Installation Guides
The EIA/TIA-568Standard specifies generic telecommunicationcabling system. It provides standard for thefollowing:-
Building Entrance:
Provide the point at whichoutside cabling interfaces with the intra-buildingbackbone cabling often called Point of Presence.
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-Equipment Room
: The specifications are in theEIA/TIA 569 standard.-
Backbone Cabling 
: The available options for backbone cabling with maximum distances are:>100 ohm UTP cable (800 meters maximum) -24 AWG solid conductors -25 pair binder groups>150 ohm STP cable (700 meters maximum)>62.5/125 um multimode optical fiber cable (200meters maximum)>Single mode optical fiber cable (3000 metersmaximum)-
Horizontal Cabling:
Three media types arerecognized as options for horizontal cabling:1. Four-pair 100 ohm UTP cable2. Two-pair 150 ohm STP cables3. Two fiber 62.5/125 um optical fiber cable
 Network Devices
 A hub is a hardware device that connects multiplenodes of a network and internetworking equipment.It repeats (broadcasts) signals received on each portto all the other connected ports. A Hub is defined bythe following points:-Works on Physical layer of OSI model.-Defines number of UTP ports.-Defines cascading to create desired layout.-Can cause problems with network congestion
 Repeaters connect two or more segments of thenetwork. It receives, amplifies, and retransmitssignals in both directions.-Works on physical layer of OSI model.-Two network segments with a single repeater willallow a connection up to 370 meters with 58devices.-Work on
5-4-3 rule:
Defines that not more than 5segments using not more than 4 repeaters with notmore than 3 occupied segments.
 A bridge connects different network types or networks of the same type. It maps the Ethernetaddresses of the nodes and allows only the requiredtraffic to pass through the bridge. Bridges are oftenbeing replaced by switches due to better performance.-Works on Data-link layer of OSI model.-Can be programmed to reject packets fromparticular networks.-Cannot read IP addresses, but only the outermostMAC address of the packet.-Can read the Ethernet data, which gives thehardware address of the destination.-Forwards all broadcast messages.To resolve the network segment that the MACaddress belongs to, bridges use one of thefollowing:
-Transparent Bridging:
Builds a table of addresseseach time they receive packets. If the address doesnot appear in the bridging table, the packet isforwarded to all segments other than sourcesegment. Ethernet networks use this type of bridging.
-Source route bridging:
The source computer provides path information inside the packet. TokenRing networks use this bridging.
Switches are used to connect networks together.Switches allow segmentation and segregation of data. Switches allow heavily loaded networks toisolate data flow and improve performance. The keydifference between hubs and switches is the factthat switches direct traffic by MAC address whereashubs do not.-Works on the Data link layer of the OSI model.-
Cut-through switching 
runs faster because when apacket arrives, it forwards the packet to thedestination address after reading the destinationframe instead of waiting for the entire packet toarrive.-
switch examines the entirepacket before forwarding. Switches are dedicateddevices as they utilize close to 100% of thebandwidth for each given connection. Switches usea hardware switch fabric and software to handle itsfunctions.
Routers are used to segment LANs. Routers alsoconnect remote LANs together using different WANtechnologies. The Router forwards data packetsalong networks. The Routers use headers andforwarding table information to calculate the shortestpath for forwarding the packets.-Works on the Network layer of OSI model.-Divides LAN into Subnets.-Uses routing protocols to communicate with eachother and calculate the best route between any twohosts.-Divides network using a logical addressing scheme.-Forwards data that is meant only for particular subnets.
 A Brouter is a combination of bridge and router providing the functionality of both devicesSometimes referred to as a Layer-3 Switch. Abrouter routes specific types of packets, such asTCP/IP packets. Any other in coming packets aresimply forwarded to other networks connected to thedevice, which is the function of a bridge.
-Works on Data link and Network layer of OSImodel.-Offers routing of a restricted number of protocols,operating by routing where possible and bridging theremaining protocols.-Bridges some packets (based on data link layer information) and routes other packets (based onnetwork layer information).-The bridge/route decision is based on configurationinformation.
 A Gateway is an internetworking system that joinstwo dissimilar networks together. A Gateway can beimplemented completely in software, completely inhardware, or as a combination of both.-Operates at any level of the OSI model fromapplication protocols to low-level signalingdepending on the implementation.-Uses a router that use headers and forwardingtables to determine destination address, and aswitch that to find actual path for the packet in andout of the gateway.-Compatible with AUI, BNC, IEEE 1394, GBIC,MIC, RJ-45, SC, serial, ST, ISDN BR S/T, ISDNBRI U, and USB ports.-Provides functionalities for integrated firewalls,and Virtual Private Networks.-Allows IPX/SPX clients to use a TCP/IP uplink toan internet connection. Converts TCP/IP toIPX/SPX.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
Virtual Local Area Network is a logical group of user stations, servers, and network devices thatappear to be on the same LAN, irrespective of their physical location. In VLAN, switches need to usetrunking on network segments between theswitches. In VLAN trunking, sending switches addanother header to the frame before sending it over the trunk. This extra header includes a VLANidentifier field so that the sending switch can listthe VLAN ID. The receiving switch also knows inwhat VLAN each frame belongs. This process isknown as VLAN tagging.The reasons for separating hosts intodifferent VLANS are:
To create flexible network designs
To fragment the network devices into smaller LANS
To increase the security
To reduce the workload for the SpanningTree Protocol
To segregate network traffic by an IP phonefrom network traffic sent by PCs A created VLAN is unused until it is assigned to aswitch port.
Inter Switch Link (ISL)
: It is defined by Cisco. Itsupports normal range (1-1005) and extendedrange (1006 -4094) VLANS and allows multiplespanning trees. It can be used only between Ciscoswitches which supports ISL .ISL encapsulateseach data in a header and trailer. The header hasseveral fields including a VLAN field. ISL usesMAC address of the sending and receiving switchas the source and destination address in theheader frame.
IEEE 802.1Q
: It is defined by IEEE. It has all thefeatures of ISL. It is most popular trunking protocolas some of the new Cisco switches is notsupporting ISL. ISL encapsulates each data in aheader and trailer. It inserts another 4-byte header instead of completely encapsulating the originalframe. It uses a native VLAN. It uses MAC addressof the sending and receiving switch as the sourceand destination address in the header frame.
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)
: It helps theswitches to exchange VLAN configurationinformation. It defines a layer 2 messagingprotocol. When a VLAN os modified or added or deleted then VTP helps all the switches tosynchronize their VLAN configuration information
Command Descriptionvlan
vlan_id Is a global configurationcommand that creates theVLAN and also puts the CLIinto VLAN configuration mode
vtp domain
Is a global configurationcommand which defines theVTP domain name
vtp password
 passwordIs a global configurationcommand which defines thevtp password
Shutdown vlan
 vlan_idIs a global configurationcommand which disables aVLAN
Vtp {server|client|transparent}
Is a global configurationcommand that defines theVTP mode
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Command Descriptionvtp pruning
Is a global configurationcommand that informs theVTP server to inform allswitches to use VTP pruning
Is a VLAN subcommand whichprevents a switch fromforwarding traffic in the VLAN
show vlan
 vlan_idDisplays information about theVLAN
show vtp status
Displays configuration andstatus information about VTP
vtp password
 passwordIs a global configurationcommand which defines thevtp password
Show interfaces
Displays administrativesettings abd operational stateinformation for the interface
Show interfaces
Displays all operational trunksinformation
Variable-Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) allowsan administrator to use more than one subnet maskwithin the same network address space. It also helpsto reduce the wastage of IP address in each subnet.The following example shows the commands neededto configure a router, named ROUTER1, with a 28-bitmask on its Ethernet port and a 26-bit mask on itsserial port:
ROUTER1(config)#interface e0ROUTER1 (config-if)#ip address201.21.24.30 (config-if)#interface s0ROUTER1 (config-if)#ip address207.21.20.193
Route summarization:
It helps to reduce the size of the routing tables but it maintains all the destinationroutes in the network. With route summarization youcan
Improve the routing performance
Save memory
Improve convergence timeThere are two ways of route summarization, manualsummarization and autosummarization. Manualsummarization occurs when an administrator configures it manually using one or more command. Autosummarization occurs automatically without anyspecific configuration command. The following routingprotocols supports autosummarization:
OSPF do not supports autosummarization.
Difference between VLAN and subnetting:
VLAN is a layer 2 concept and a subnet is Layer 3concept. The devices in a VLAN need to be in thesame subnet.
Switch Concepts
Switching refers to the process of connecting LANsegments using a table of MAC addresses to resolvethe segment to transmit datagrams. Bridges are nolonger manufactured and can be characterized asLAN switches that used software instead of hardware
LAN Switching
-A Switch is similar to a bridge with more than twoports.-Switching is done by examining the contents of aframe to resolve the MAC address to the destinationport.-A Switch determines the interface for the destinationaddress and establishes a hardware connection to itinterface and forwards the frame to proceed to itsdestination.-Switches allow high-speed data exchange, lowlatency & high frame forwarding rates, full-duplex,media rate adaptation (10/100 Mbps). The figureshows an example of switching:The two types of switching are:
Port Switching:
port assigned to a physical networkby software.
Frame Switching 
: increases bandwidth on thenetwork. Allows multiple transactions in parallel.
Common commands for the Catalyst seriesSwitches(Top-level commands):clear Commands:
clear alias: Clears aliases of commands.clear arp: Clears ARP table entries.clear cam: Clears CAM table entries.clear config: Clears the configuration and resetssystem.clear counters: Clears MAC and port counters.clear filter: Clears custom filtering configuration.
Downloads a configuration batch filefrom a TFTP server and then execute thecommands in the file.
copies data movement processor (DMP) or network management processor (NMP) image filesbetween the network host and Flash memory usingthe TFTP protocol.
Turns off enable mode.
Temporarily disconnects the FDDI portfrom the FDDI ring temporarily without disconnectingthe FDDI cables.
Downloads code to the networkmanagement processor (the default) or the datamovement processor.
Turns on privileged mode. Certaincommands are available, and certain displays haveextra information in privileged mode.
Displays the help information in normal mode.
Send Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP) echo packets to another node on thenetwork.
Quits the current admin.
Resets the system.
set Commands:
set alias: Sets an alias for a command.set arp: Sets an ARP table entry.set bridge help: Shows the set bridge help screen.set bridge ipx: Sets the default mode for translatingIPX packets. set bridge vlan: Groups ports intobridge VLANs.set fddi cam: Sets FDDI CAM modeset filter: Sets custom filteringset interface: Sets the network interfaceconfigurationset ip alias: Sets an alias for an IP addressset ip forwarding: Sets the router IP forwardingenable/disableset ip fragmentation: Sets the bridge IPfragmentation enable/disableset ip vlan: Sets the IP VLANset length: Sets terminal display line, 0 to disableset mac: Sets the MAC addressset password: Sets the console passwordset port disable: Disables a portset port enable: Enables a portset port name: Sets the port nameset prompt: Sets a prompt you designateset snmp community: Sets a SNMP stringset snmp help: Shows the SNMP help screenset snmp rmon: Sets an SNMP RMONenable/disableset snmp trap: Sets a SNMP trap receiver addressset span: Sets switch port analyzer set spantree disable: Disables a spanning treeset spantree enable: Enables a spanning treeset trunk: Configures ports to perform as links
show commands:show arp
: Displays the ARP table
show bridge
: Displays bridge information
show cdp
: Displays CDP2 configuration
Attaches or detach a SLIP interface.
test Command:
test online: Runs a diagnostic test on the systemtest snmp: Tests the SNMP
Uploads the Flash memory image filefrom the catalyst to a network host tocreate a backup file.
Pauses the console output for the number of seconds indicated.
Writes the Catalyst 1200 series switchconfiguration either to an existing file in a networkhost tftpboot directory or to the terminal screendisplay
Spanning Tree Protocol:
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) defined in the IEEE802.1D is a link management protocol thatprovides path redundancy while preventingundesirable loops. STP is a technology that:-Uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) toensure that only one path exists between any twostations.-Allows bridges to communicate with each other todiscover physical loops in the network.-Specifies an algorithm that bridges use to create aloop-free logical topology.-Creates a tree structure of loop-free leaves andbranches that spans the entire Layer 2 network.-5 states of switches in STP: Listening, Learning,Forwarding, Blocking, Disabled.
-Root Switch Variables Affecting STP:-
Maximum Age Timer: Measures and discards thereceived protocol information for a port when itsage limit exceeds the value to the maximum ageparameter.-Forward Delay Timer: Examines the time spent bya port in the learning and listening states.
-Bridge Protocol Data Units(BPDU):
The activetopology of a switched network is determined bythe following:-The unique switch identifier, port identifier (MACaddress) associated with each switch.-The path cost to the root associated with eachswitch port.Each configuration BPDU contains the followinginformation:-The unique identifier of the switch that thetransmitting switch takes as root switch.-The cost of the path to the root from thetransmitting port.-The identifier of the transmitting port.

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