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OSI Reference Model
OSI Reference Model
The OSI model is a layered model to define thestandards for network communications. The controlis passed from one layer to the next, starting at theapplication layer in one station, and proceeding tothe bottom layer over the media to the next station.This model contains 7 layers:
Provides network access for applications. Defines processes for user authentication.Devices: GatewaysData Unit: DataProtocols: HTTP, POP3, SMTP, FTP, SNMP,Telnet.
Determines the form used toexchange data between networked computers(ASCII or EBCDIC). Performs protocol conversion,encryption and data compression. Ensures thatdata from one system is compatible with another system.Devices: Gateways and RedirectorsData Unit: Data
Allows applications tocommunicate with each other over a network byestablishing a communication session,synchronizing the involved computers, andterminating the session.Devices: GatewayData Unit: Data
Manages and optimizes thetransfer of data from the source to the destination,transforms messages into smaller formats, provideserror free delivery and error handling functions.
Device: GatewayData Unit: SegmentProtocols: NetBEUI, TCP, UDP, SPX, and NWLink
Provides connectivity and pathselection between two end systems. Handlesaddressing, translates logical addresses and namesto physical addresses, performs routing and trafficsequencing and congestion control.Devices: Router and Brouter Data Unit: PacketProtocols: IP, IPX, NWLink, and NetBEUI.
-Data Link Layer:
Broken down into two sublayers.The Logical Link Control (LLC
frames messages for transmission, performs error detection andcorrection, checks the integrity of receivedmessages, and ensures proper sequencing of transmitted data. Defines a sub layer, the Media Access Control (MAC) that appends the MACaddress of the next hop to the frame header andcontrols protocol access to the physical layer.Devices: Switch, Bridge, and Brouter Data Unit: Frame
electrical, mechanical,procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physicallink between end systems. Consists of the cables,connectors and associated hardware to implement anetwork.Devices: Multiplexer and Repeater, Physical MediaData Unit: Bit
Ethernet is typically a Local Area Network (LAN)technology covered by the IEEE 802.3 standardsproviding transmission speeds of 10 megabits to1000 megabits per second. The standards alsodiffer as far as the type of cabling and the allowedlength of the cabling.
Ethernet Network Elements:
The network nodesare of two types:
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE):
Define either thesource or the destination of data frames. Definesdevices such as PCs, workstations, file servers, or print servers.
Data Communication Equipment (DCE):
Definesintermediate network devices that receive andforward frames across the network, such asrepeaters, and routers, or communications interfaceunits such as network interface cards and modems.
-The Ethernet MAC Sublayer:
The MAC sublayer communicates with the LogicalLink Control sub-layer above it allowing it to accessand speak to the upper layer network protocols.
-Ethernet Frame Format: Ethernet defines followingbasic data frame format required for all MACimplementations:
7 bytes, informs stations aboutarrival of frames.
State-of-frame Delimiter (SOF)-
1 byte, indicates thatthe next bit is the left-most bit in the left-most byte of the destination address.
6 bytes, defines theidentification of the stations that should receive theframe.
6 bytes, identifies the sendingstation. The left-most bit is always 0.
4 bytes, indicates the number of MAC-client data bytes.
- Defines sequence of n-bytes of data where nis less than or equal to 1500. If it is too small (< 46,the field must be padded to equal 46.
Frame Check Sequence (FCS
)- 4bytes, contains a32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) value tocheck the accuracy of data.-Frame Transmission:
Half Duplex Transmission (CSMA/CD access Mode):
Defines a method for stations to share a commonmedia over the network. The CSMA/CD access rulesare governed by following protocol’s acronym:
Stations continuously check theavailability of the carrier.
Stations begin transmission anytime when the carrier is free.
Stations may begin transmissionat any time. But they should be able to detectcollision, if any, and retransmit the data.
Full Duplex Transmission:
Allows simultaneous both-ways transmission over point-to-point links. Containsno media issues, no collisions, and noretransmissions.-Frame Reception: Reception is same for Full-duplexand Half-duplex transmissions.
If two or more electrical signals were sent at thesame time, they would overlap and collide, makingboth signals meaningless. To handle this situationEthernet defined a specification known as carrier sense multiple access with collision detection(CSMA/CD). CSMA/CD ensures that only onedevice sends traffic on the network at a time. This isaccomplished via the asymmetric sending of information at random times and detection of collions.
Fast Ethernet, also known as 100BASE-TX, is anetworking standard that supports 100 Mbps Datatransfer rate. It is based on the Ethernet standard.Fast Ethernet is covered by the IEEE 802.3ustandards. Fast Ethernet is based on CSMA/CDLAN ACCESS methods.Cable Type: Copper with maximum length 100 m
Gigabit Ethernet, also known as 1000BASE-LX or 1000BASE-SX, defines a networking standard thatsupports 1Gbps Data transfer rate. It retains theCSMA/CD access methods same as originalEthernet. It supports both full-duplex and half-duplex operations.Cable Type: Fiber with maximum length 550m(SX) 5 km (LX)
Uses the combination of originalEthernet technologies and ANSIX3T11 Fiber channel specifications. Supports following media:-1000Base: SX850 nm laser on multi mode fiber -1000Base: LX1300 nm laser on both single andmulti mode fiber -1000Base: CX Short haul copper “twinax” STPcable
The MAC layer uses CSMA/CDprotocol. The length of the cable is limited by theCSMA/CD protocol.-Carrier Extension: Defines a means of supporting802.3 minimum and maximum frame sizes.-Packet Bursting: Defines an extension of Carrier Extension. Adds a burst of packets to the Carrier Extension.
Wireless works through radiosignals to transmit data from one point to another.-An ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless networkconsists of a number of computers each equippedwith a wireless networking interface card.
A standard defining all aspects of Radio Frequency Wireless networking.-Makes provisions for data rates of 1,2,5,and 11Mbps.-Calls for operation in the 2.4 - 2.4835 and the 5GHz range.-Specifies a carrier sense multiple access withcollision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol.