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04 Fourth Class Seminar 2012 Part 2

04 Fourth Class Seminar 2012 Part 2

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Published by: Terence Blake on Jul 04, 2012
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Pharmakon.fr - Bernard StieglerFourth class of seminar 2012 part 217 mai 2012
(translated by Terence Blake)
In highlighting the parallel between cortical evolution and lithicevolution, I maintained in TECHNICS AND TIME 1 that in thepaleolithic
corticalisation
, and during
most of the processof hominisation
, the
brain was trans-formed by itsrelation to the matter it exteriorised itself into
via
itshand
 just as much as
it interiorised the hand,
for
when itshand works, what it inscribes in matter is inscribed alsoin
its
matter: in its «grey matter», in its brain. And
thisinduces a
progressive exit from the situation describedby Darwin
namely evolution
according to the simpleconditions of the struggle for life
. The question of the soul, in that it is not reduced to the brain,no more than to being the animation of the animal or of theplant, is that of the passage from the
struggle for life
to thestruggle for existence, of which the struggle for recognitiondescribed by Hegel then by Kojève is one version, but whichthey do not manage to veritably think because they do notthink the consequences of the Hegelian thought o
exteriorisation as techno-logical
– and it is because shedoes not see this that Catherine Malabou does not draw all theconsequences of her own analyses.
When the cartography of the cortical zones seems«written
», ie completed,
technical objects
play the rôle of 
epiphylogenetic memory
, ie o
vectors ointergenerational transmissions which go beyond theCNS, so that the epiphylogenetic memory becomes theprincipal evolutive factor by way of the firstoccurrences of R3 (tertiary retentions) «in the strongsense» ie such that in their becoming they autonomisethemselves totally from the genetic drift.
With
grammatisation properly speaking,
which I think
began in the Upper
 
Paleolithic
with the
rupestral
 
2
inscriptions
(this is what I elaborated on in the W3C Summit inLyon) as
spatialisations and materialisations of mentalcontent
,
something establishes itself which constitutesthe technological process of psychic and collectiveindividuation in which we recognize ourselves (thereason why we can say «WE» or « US » in looking at theseworks – on this subject cf. TECHNICS AND TIME 3).
 Today we see that
functionnal
 
neuro-imagery
renders allthat
observable, analysable, experimentable andtheorisable on a new basis – and
it is in this new contextthat we shall try to reply to the questions posed by Wolf, Carrand a few others concerning the
double epokhal reversalprovoked by digital technologies
.*Maryanne Wolf describes how the shock of writing totally
reorganised
certain cerebral zones, in the first place of coursethose devoted to vision and the hand but also equally andobviously those for language (PROUST AND THE SQUID,p3): This
re-organisation
is what in DE LA MISERE SYMBOLIQUE 2, Idescribed as a
process of defunctionalisation and of 
 
3
refunctionalisation
in the course of an
organogenesis
that Ipresented as well as a
genealogy of the sensible
, in thesense of both Nietzche and Foucault.I must tell you that I inscribe all these questions in the horizonof what I call
digital studies
, which are in my opinion
theepistemo-technological framework of the question posedby the neurophysiologist
Maryanne Wolf – since she saysthat she questions all that because of the
technocerebralmutation
which affects her children.As we have just seen, to apprehend the effects of writing andmore generally of technology on cerebral evolution we shoulddistinguish two great types evolutions:.
properly neurophysiological
evolutions whichparticipate for example in the opening of the corticalspectrum, as Leroi-Gourhan said,. «
circuitry
» as Wolf calls it, insofar as it
belongs to theformation and the metastabilsiation of knowledge bymeans of an organological assemblage such thatcircuits are formed linking psychic apparatuses (andprocesses of individuation) to social apparatuses(and to collective individuations) by means otechnical apparatuses (which are technicalindividuations), and this WITH THE AIM OFPRODUCING CIRCUITS OF TRANSINDIVIDUATON.
I remind you that
I read the
REPUBLIC
as a grand discourseon transindividuation
– on a transindividuaton
founded onthe short-circuit of the diachronic potentialities of noeticsouls
.
The REPUBLIC
is
the result of the state of shock of amutation which was produced in the brains, and not onlyin the souls, and consequently, in the society whichleads to this reaction
: it is a
reactionary 
text in this sense,but this «reacticity» (in the sense of Deleuze discussingNietzsche) is what is provoked by a
neuropolitical mutation
.Similarly, it is in a context of radical transformation of theconditions of production of the retentions, protentions and

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