Nightjars in general are nocturnal insectivorous birds, with owl-like, soft mottled plumage (Del Hoyo et al., 1999;Harrison & Worfolk, 1999; Henry, 1998; King, 1975;Kotagama & Fernando, 1994; Wait, 1931). They have long wings and tails, and silent, wheel-ing and gliding flight. All their food, whichconsists of flying insects such as mothsand beetles, is captured on the wing.The beak is small and weak but themouth is enormously wide, withgape extending to below the mid-dle of the eyes; to increase theeffectiveness of this wide mouth inengulfing insects, the sides of theupper mandible, below the lores, arefringed with long, stiff bristles projectingoutwards and downwards (Nigel & Dave,1998; Rasmussen & Anderton, 2005). Thenostrils of species occurring in Sri Lanka areupstanding and tubular (Henry, 1998;Legge, 1880).The eyes are large, the legs are shortand weak, more or less clothed with feathers down to thefeet. The hind toe and the two lateral toes are short, butthe middle toe is long and, in all Sri Lankan species, itsclaw has comb-like flange on the inner side similar to thatfound in herons, some owls, and a few other birds (Harrison& Worfolk, 1999; Henry, 1998; Kotagama & Fernando,1994). Probably owing to this structure of the foot, nightjarsperch along a branch, not across it in the usual manner.They have peculiar notes, which are excellent aids toidentification (Nigel & Dave, 1998). They usually roost, andalways nest, on the ground, where their colour schemesgive perfect camouflage. No nest is made, the mottledeggs being laid on the soil (Henry, 1998; Legge, 1880;Rasmussen & Anderton, 2005). The young are clothed withlong down, but are helpless for some time after hatching(Nigel & Dave, 1998).The Great Eared Nightjar (
) is one of the nine Nightjar speciesencountered in the South Asian region. Itsdistribution and movements occurthroughout the oriental faunal zoneand in Sulawesi (Nigel & Dave, 1998;Rasmussen & Anderton, 2005).Geological variations among fiveraces (Eurostopodus macrotismacrotis, E. m. cerviniceps, E. m.bourdilloni, E. m. jacobsoni and E. m.macropterus) are currently recog-nised, although each form is extremely variable in colour. It prefers forests andalso occurs in secondary forests, along forestedges, near rivers in primary forests, in sec-ondary growth and scrublands, in clearingsand wooded grasslands (Nigel & Dave,1998; Rasmussen & Anderton, 2005). It alsoinhabits more open country 0-1,000 m (to 1,750 m onSulawesi) (Nigel & Dave, 1998; Rasmussen & Anderton,2005; Sibley & Monroe, 1990).
Length is 31-40 cm. It is a widely distributed and very large brown Asian nightjar. Sexes are similar. At rest they may show ‘ear tufts’ at rear of crown. Upperparts arebrown, speckled and spotted buff, cinnamon and greyish- white, the crown is boldly spotted with blackish brown (Del