Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The special Theory of relativity: a Critical Analisys.

The special Theory of relativity: a Critical Analisys.

Ratings: (0)|Views: 380|Likes:
Published by idsborg1788
Louis Essen criticism to relativity.
Louis Essen criticism to relativity.

More info:

Published by: idsborg1788 on Jul 04, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/23/2014

pdf

text

original

 
o
xtord
ScienceResearchPapers
5
TheSpecial
TheoryofRelativity
ACriticalAnalysis
L.
Essen
CONTENTS1.Introduction
2.
Foundationsofthetheory3.Einstein'sprinciples4.Thebasicprocessofmeasurementinterms
of
definedunits5.Thesynchronizationoftimeandsimultaneity
6.
TheLorentztransformations7.Thedilationoftime
8.
Clockcomparisons
9.
TheDopplereffect10.Theclockparadox11.Explanationsintermsofgravitationalfield
12.
Explanations
in
termsofthe
special
theory
ofrelatfvity15
13.Consequences
of
theparadox1814.Rotationaleffects18
15.
Gravitationaleffect
19
16.Acriticalexaminationofthefoundationsofthetheory2017.Relevantexperiments2118.Conclusions23
19.
Acknowledgements24
1
4557
8
8
9
11
1213
 
':>'4
r
w
f
~
!
>\
~>
THESPECIALTHEORYOFRELATIVITY-ACRITICALANALYSIS
1.
Introduction
.Nobranchofsciencehasreceivedmorepublicacclaimthanthetheoryofrelativity,andfewscientistsareheldingreateresteemthanitsauthor,A.Einstein.ThetheorywasacceptedbysuchphilosophersofscienceasB.Russell(1927),deBroglie(1939),andW.Heisenberg(1958).P.W.Bridgeman(1936)acceptedthespecialtheory
of
relativitywithsomereservations,althoughhewasverycriticalofthegeneraltheory.A.Eddington,whowasveryinfluentialinpopularizingthetheoryinEngland.expressedtheviewintheprefaceto
Space,time,andgravitation
(1920)thatwiththetheoryofrelativityAlbertEinsteinprovokedarevolutionofthoughtinphysicalscience;andmorere-centlyC.Lanczos(1959)hasstatedthatwithinthespanofafewyearsthenameEinsteinattainedalustrethatisperhapsunpreceden-tedintheentirehistoryofthehumanrace.Inviewofsuchcommentsit
is
surprisingtofindthatthetheorypresentsmanystrangefeatures.Einsteinandmanyotherwritershavefounditnecessarytowriteex-planationsofthetheory,andalthoughtheexplanationsarelargelyrepetitivetheysometimesdifferinimportantrespects.Thereareexamplesofthesameauthorgiving,atdifferenttimes,differentex-.planationsofsomeoftherelativitypredictions.
It
isasubjectaboutwhichwriterstendtousemoreemotive·Ianguagethanisusualinscien-tifictexts.Forexample,L.B.LoebandA.S.Adams(1933)statethatmostofthosewhoattackrelativityareeitherfanaticsorsopoorlyequippedmathematicallythattheyareincapableofwiderstandingorfollowingtheprocessesinvolved.Thereferenceheretomathematicalabilityispuzzlingbecause.asweshal!see,partsofEinstein'spapersthatareoftencriticizedinvolvenomathematics.OtherstrangefeaturesarethebrevityoftheintroductioninEin-stein'spaperof1905.andtheomissionof
any
referencetotheworkofH.A.LorentzandH.Poincare,althoughthiswassoimportantthatE.Whittaker(1953)inhisdetailedstudyattributesthetheoryentirelytothem.SuchpointsofhistoricalinterestarealsomentionedbyG.H.Keswani(1965,1966)andG.B.Brown(1967).E.G.Cullwick(1959)
 
;.
.
_.
<
2'IlIE'lHEORYOFRELATIVITY
andH.Dingle
(1960.
1967)alsocriticizethetheory.P.M.S.Blackett(1955)quotesastoryshowingthatE.Rutherfordattachednoimport-ancetoit.WienhadbeenexplainingtohimthatNewtonWaswronginthematterofrelativevelocityandadded,'ButnoAnglo-Saxoncanunderstandrelativity.''No,'Rutherfordagreed,'theyhavetoomuchsense!Thiscommentwasnotborneoutlater,andthetheorybecameacceptedwholeheartedly.Perhapsthestrangestfeatureofall,andthemostunfortunatetothedevelopmentofscience,istheuseofthethought-experiment.Theexpressionitselfisacontradictioninterms,sinceanexperimentisasearchfornewknowledgethatcannotbeconfirmed,althoughitmightbepredicted,byaprocessoflogicalthought.Athought-experimentontheotherhandcannotprovidenewknowledge;ifitgivesaresultthatiscontrarytothetheoreticalJ.mowledgeandassumptionsonwhichitisbasedthenamistakemusthavebeenmade.Someoftheresultsofthetheorywereobtainedin
this
wayanddifferfromtheoriginalas-sumptions.(Essen1957,1963a,1965,1969.)Einsteinhimselfcallsoneoftheresultspeculiar,butinfactitmustbewrong,sinceitdis-agreeswiththe
initial
assumptions.Inspiteoftheseunsatisfactoryfeatures,andinspiteofthefactthatattentionhasbeendrawntothem,thetheoryisstillgenerallyac-cepted.
It
is,ofcourse,taughtinuniversftles,usuallyuncritically,andthereare-nowplanstointroduceitintoschoolcourses(Rosser1969).H.Bondi(1967)haswrittenthathisultimateaimistogetspecialrelatiVityintotheprimary-schoolsyllabus.Inthesecircum-stancesitisparticularlyimportantthatanyweaknessesinthetheoryshouldbeopenlydiscussedandremedied.Acommonreactionofexperimentalphysiciststothetheoryisthatalthoughtheydonotunderstanditthemselvesitissowidelyacceptedthatitmustbecorrect.Imustconfessthatuntilrecentyearsthiswasmyownattitude.Iwas,however,rathermorethanusuallyinterestedinthesubjectfromapracticalpointofview,havingrepeated,withmicrowavesinsteadofopticalwaves(Essen1955),thecelebratedMichelson-Morleyexperiment,whichwasthestartingpointofthetheory.Thenwiththeintroductionofatomicclocks,andtheenormousincreaseintheaccuracyoftimemeasurementsthattheymadepossible,therelativityeffectsbecameofpracticalsignificance.Correctionsarealreadybeingmadetothefrequenciescorrespondingtotheatomictransitionsemployedintheclocks.Thecorrectionfortheeffectknownastimedilationisaboutfourpartsin10"forthehydrogenmaserandfourpartsin10'3forthecaesium-beamstandard.Thesug-.gestionhasalsobeenmadethatrelativityeffectsshould
be
consideredinthedefinitionoftheunitoftime.Thusthereisanimportantprac-
c
INTRODUCTION
3
ticalreasonforsubjectingthepredictionoftheseeffectstoacriticalexamination.Manyofthethought-experimentsdescribedbyEinsteinandothersinvolvethecomparisonofdistantclocks.Suchcomparisonsarenowmadeeverydayatmanylaboratoriesthroughouttheworld.Thetech-niquesare'wellknown.
It
seemsreasonable,therefore.toconsiderthethought-experimentsintermsofthesetechniques.Whenthisisdone,theerrorsinthethought-experimentsbecomemoreobvious.Thefactthattheerrorsinthetheoryariseinthecourseofthethought-experi-mentsmayexplainwhytheywerenotdetectedforsolong.Theoreticalphysicistsmightnothaveconsideredthemcriticallyfromanexperi-mentalpointofview..Butifonehasbeenactuallyperformingsuch'ex-perimentsformanyyears,oneisinamorefavourablepositiontodetectanydeparturefromthecorrectprocedure.Intheexistingclimateofopinion,oneneededtobeveryconfidenttospeakofdefiniteerrors
in
thetheory.Wastherenotperhapssomesubtleinterpretationthatwasbeingoverlooked?Astudyoftheliteraturedidnotrevealany,butevensoitwasthefamiliaritywiththeexperimentsthatgaveonethenecessaryconfidencetomaintainacriticalattitude.Theliteraturesometimesrevealsaremarkablevaguenessofex-pression,alackofaclearstatementoftheassumptionsofthetheory,andevenafailuretoappreciatethebasicideasofphysicalmeasure-ment.AmbiguitiesarenotabsentfromEinstein'sownpapers,andvari-ouswriters,evenwhenadvancingdifferentinterpretations
of
thetheory,arecorrectinasmuchastheseinterpretationscan
all
beattributedtoEinstein.Theliteratureonthesubjectisextensive,butitwillbecitedonlytoshowwhatotherargumentshavebeenadvancedandhowtheydifferfromthosegiveninthepresentpaper.Anattemptwillbemadetomakethissufficientlycomprehensiveto
be
understoodby.thosewhomightnothaveadetailedknowledgeofthebackground,butwhocaresufficientlyaboutsciencetofeelthatthelong-standingcon-fusionaboutthetheoryshould
be
resolved.Thecriticismsmadeherereferonlytotheinternalcontradictionsinthetheoryitself.Einsteinandrelativitistsgenerallyhavestressedtheneedforexperimentalchecksofhistheory;but
it
isequally
im-
portantthatatheoryshouldbeself-consistent.
If
itisshowntobein-consistentthenthiscriticismholdsgoodeven
if
theresultsofexperi-
mentseem
tosupportsomeoftheassumptionsorpredictionsthataremade.Ashortdiscussionoftheexperimentalevidenceisgiven.Thereismuchmoreevidencethantherewas
in
Einstein'stimeanditisim-portantthatitshould
be
consideredcritically
to
checkwhethertheresultscanbeinterpreted'intheframeworkofexistingtheories,orwhethertheyleadtoarationalextenstcnofthesetheories.

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->