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DOCUMENTATION Citation in the Text

DOCUMENTATION Citation in the Text

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Published by Miah Rashiduzzaman

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Published by: Miah Rashiduzzaman on Jul 05, 2012
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6
Uocumentation:
6.2.
6.3.6.4.
6.1.
Citing
Sources
in
the
Text
ParentheticalDocumentation
andthe
List
of
WorksCited
Information
Required
in
ParentheticalDocumentationReadability
Sample
References
6.4.1.
Citing
an
Entire
Work,Including
a
Work
with
No
Page
Numbers
6.4.2.
Citing
Partof
a
Work
6.4.3.
Citing
Volume
and
Page
Numbers of
a
Multivolume
Work
6.4.4.
Citing
a
Work Listedby
Title
6.4.5.
Citing
a
Work
by
a
Corporate
Author
6.4.6.
Citing
T\,rro
or More
Works
by
the
Same
Author
or
Authors
6.4.7.
Citing Indirect
Sources6.4.8.
Citing
Common Literature
6.4.9.
Citing
More Than
One
Work
in
a
SingleParenthetical
Reference
Using
Notes
with
Parenthetical Documentation
6.5.1.
Content
Notes6.5.2.
Bibliographic
Notes6.5.273
 
6.1
DOCUMENTATION:CITING
SOURCES
IN
THE
TEXT
6.1.
PARENTHETICALDOCUMENTATION
AND
THE
LIST
OF
WORKS
CITED
The
list
of
works
cited
at
theend
of
your
research
paper plays
an
im-portantrole
in
your
acknowledgment
of
sources
(see
ch.
5),
but
the
list
does
not
in
itself providesufficientlydetailed
andprecise
docu-
mentation.You mustindicate
to
your
readers
notonlywhat
works
you
used
in
writing
the
paper
but
also
what
you
derived from
each
sourceand
where
in
the
work
youfound
the
material.
The
most
prac-
tical
wayto supply
this
information
is
to insert
a
brief
parentheticalacknowledgment
in
your
paperwherever
you
incorporate
another's
words,
facts,or ideas.
Usually
the
author's
lastname and
a
page
refer-enceare
enough
to
identify
the
source
and the specific
location
from
which
youborrowedmaterial.
Medieval
Europe was
a
place
both
of'raids,
pillages,
slavery
and
extortion"
and
of"traveling
merchants,monetary
exchange,
towns
if
notcities, and active marketsin
grain'
Clownsend
l0).The
parenthetical
reference"(Townsend
fO)"
indicates that the quctations
come
from
page
10
of
a
work
by
Townsend.Given
theauthor's
last
name,
your
readers
can
find
complete
publication
informationfor the
source
in
the alphabetically
arranged
list
ofworks cited
that
follows
the
text
of
your
paper.
Townsend,RobertM.
The
Medieval
VillogeEconomy.
Princeton:
PrincetonUB
1993.
Print.
Thesample references
in
6.4 offer
recommendations for documentingmany other
kinds
of
sources.
6.2.
INFORMATION
REQUIRED
IN
PARENTHETICALDOCUMENTATION
In
determining
the information
needed
to
document
sources
accu-
rately,
keep
the
following
guidelines
in
mind.
References
in
the text must
clearlypointto
specific
sources
in
the
list
of
workscited.
The
information
in
your
parenthetical
references274
 
PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION
in
the
text must
match
the
corresponding
information
in
theentries
inyour
list
of
works
cited. For
a
typical works-cited-list
entry,
which
begins
with
the
name
of the
autlor
(oreditor, translator,or narrator),
the
parenthetical
referencebegins
with
the
sarne
name.
When
the
list
contains
only
one
work by
t}re
authorcited,you
needgive
only
the
author's
last
name
toidentify
t}re
work:
"(Patterson
1S3-85)."
If
your
list
contains
more
than
one
author
with
the
same
lastname,
youmust
add
the
first
initial-"(A.
Patterson
183-85)"
and
"(L.
Patterson
230)"<r,
if
the
initial
is
shared
too,
the
full
first
name.
If
two
orthree
names
begin the entry,givethe last
name
of
each
person
listed:"(Rabkin,
Greenberg,
and Olander
vii)."If
the
work
has
more
thant}lree authors,
follow
the form
in
the
bibliographic entry: either
give
the
first
author's
lastname
followed
by
et
al.,
without
any
intervening
punctuation-"(Lauter
et
al.
2601-09)"---orgive
all
the
last
names.
If
there
is
a
corporate author, use
its
name, shortened
or
in
full
(see
6.4.5).
If
the
work
is
listed by
title,
use
the
title,
shortened
or
in
full;
if
two
or
more anonymous works
have
the
same
title,
add
a
publication
fact, such
as
a
date,
that distinguishes
the
works
(see
6.4.4).
If
the
list
contains more than
one
workbythe author,add the
cited
title,
short-
ened
or
in full,
after the author's
last name
(see
6.4.6).
Identify
the location of
the
borrowed
information
as
specifically
as
possible.
Sources
include
a
variety of
reference markers
to
help
us-
ers
locate
passages.
For
sources
that
use
page
numbering,give
the
relevant
page
number or numbers
in
theparentheticalreference
(see
esp.
6.4.2) or,
if
youcite from
more
than
one
volume
of
a
multivolume
rvork,
the volume and
page
numbers
(see
6.4.3).
In
a
reference
to
a
common
work
of literature,
it
is
sometimes
helpful
to
give
informa-tion
other than,
or in addition
to,the
page
number-for
example,
thechapter,
book, or
stanza
number or
the
numbers
of
the
act, scene,and
Iine
(see
6.4.8).
You may
omit
page
numbers
when
citing
complete
rvorks
(see
6.4.1).
A
page
reference is
similarly
unnecessary
if
you
use
a
passaSe
from
a one-page
work.Electronicpublications
sometimes
include
paragraphnumbersor other
kinds
of reference
numbers
(see6
4.2).
Of
course, sources such
as
films, television
broadcasts,
perfor-
:nances,
and
electronic
sources
with
nopagination
or
othertype of
:eference
markerscannot
be
cited bynumber.
Such
works
are
usually
-ited
in
their entirety
(see
6.4.1)
and often by
title
(see
6.4.4).
6.2275

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