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Astroturf Lobbying

Astroturf Lobbying

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Published by Fabrice Epelboin

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Published by: Fabrice Epelboin on Jul 05, 2012
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08/08/2013

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Ar{}o{x}f Lommp`nc
[eodar Y. LponJoen S. Daushll
Ghllhp Rbeool of Mxr`nhrr @nk`ana Xn`vh}r`{p Mlood`nc{on, @N ;3;98 
Jxlp =99=
Amr{}ab{
Sh r{xkp {e}hh bo}yo}a{h non$da}gh{ r{}a{hc`hr khr`cnhk {o `n
xhnbh {eh lommp$`nc mheav`o} of o{eh} ryhb`al `n{h}hr{ c}oxyr: 1) “ar{}o{x}f,— `n se`be {eh
}dbovh}{lp rxmr`k`zhr a c}oxy s`{e r`d`la} v`hsr {o lommp sehn `{ no}dallp soxlkno{, =) {eh “mha}exc,— `n se`be {eh
}d ovh}{lp rxmr`k`zhr {eh lommp`nc ab{`v`{`hrof ano{eh} `n{h}hr{ c}oxy, ank 2) rhlf$}hcxla{`on, `n se`be {eh
}d volxn{a}`lpl`d`{r {eh yo{hn{`al rob`al ea}d f}od `{r ab{`v`{`hr. All {e}hh r{}a{hc`hr ban mhxrhk {o }hkxbh {eh `nfo}da{`vhnhrr of lommp`nc, ank all }hkxbh {eh shlfa}h of {ehyxml`b khb`r`on dagh}. Sh reos {ea{ {eh khb`r`on dagh} soxlk mhnh
{ mp }hqx`}$`nc {eh yxml`b k`rblorx}h of fxnkr ryhn{ on ar{}o{x}f lommp`nc, mx{ {eh ava`lam`l`{pof al{h}na{`vh `n
xhnbh r{}a{hc`hr l`d`{r {eh `dyab{ of rxbe a yol`bp.
JHL Nxdmh}r: L81, Q=5Ghpso}kr: Ryhb`al @n{h}hr{ C}oxy, Lommp`nc, Bo}yo}a{h R{}a{hcp
Sh soxlk l`gh {o {eang ya}{`b`yan{r `n rhd`na}r a{ R{anfo}k Xn`vh}r`{p, Badm}`kch Xn`vh}r`{p,Ga{eol`hgh Xn`vh}r`{p of Lhxvhn, {eh Xn`vh}r`{p of Monn, {eh =1r{ ]x{ch}r So}greoy on Yxml`b X{`l$`{p ]hcxla{`on, ank {eh Rhbonk So}lk Bonc}hrr of {eh Arrob`a{`on of Hnv`}ondhn{al ank ]hrox}bhHbonod`r{r fo} {eh`} ehlyfxl boddhn{r.
  =99= [eodar Y. Lpon ank Joen S. Daushll
 
1 @n{}okxb{`on
[eh }olh of `n{h}hr{ c}oxyr `n yol`{`br ear ehlk a lonc$r{ank`nc farb`na{`on fo} yol`{`bal hbono$d`r{r. @n {eh 1359r, Jadhr Dak`ron fadoxrlp sa}nhk of {eh yosh} of “fab{`onr— `n [ehFhkh}al`r{, se`lh nha}lp {so exnk}hk pha}r la{h} Danbx} Olron ank Cho}ch R{`clh} hlhva{hk{eh r{xkp of `n{h}hr{ c}oxy yol`{`br {o an `dyo}{an{ rxm
hlk s`{e`n hbonod`br.
1
Y`onhh}`nc{eho}h{`bal so}g `n {eh Be`baco Rbeool {}ak`{`on {}ha{hk `n{h}hr{ c}oxy “y}hrrx}h— ar a y}o$kxb{`on fxnb{`on, rdoo{e ank {s`bh bon{`nxoxrlp k`
﬉ 
h}hn{`amlh.
=
@n {e`r f}adhso}g, `n{h}hr{c}oxyr bodyh{h {o ayylp do}h y}hrrx}h `n a cadh seh}h }`val y}hrrx}h `nyx{r a}h r{}a{h$c`b bodylhdhn{r. Do}h }hbhn{lp, {eho}`r{r eavh mhhn oyhn`nc xy {eh mlabg mou of yol`{`baly}hrrx}h {o fobxr do}h huyl`b`{lp on ryhb`
b r{}a{hc`hr rxbe ar badya`cn bon{}`mx{`onr o}lommp`nc.
2
Rhvh}al }hbhn{ yayh}r rehk nhs l`ce{ on {eh }olh of lommp`nc `n bonvhp`nc “rof{,— `.h.xnvh}`
amlh, `nfo}da{`on {o yxml`b khb`r`ondagh}r.
;
@n {ehrh dokhlr, `n{h}hr{ c}oxyr dapmh amlh {o b}hk`mlp {}anrd`{ rof{ `nfo}da{`on `f {eh`} y}hfh}hnbhr ko no{ k`vh}ch {oo c}ha{lpf}od {eorh of {eh khb`r`ondagh}. [e`r }hbhn{ so}g, eoshvh}, {py`ballp kohr no{ k`r{`ncx`re
}dr f}od o{eh} ryhb`al `n{h}hr{ c}oxyr. Sh a}cxh {ea{ `n danp lommp`nc r`{xa{`onr,
}drko `nkhhk eavh y}hfh}hnbhr k`r{`nb{ f}od {eorh of o{eh} c}oxyr. @n ya}{`bxla}, {ehp of{hn mha}{eh bor{r of covh}ndhn{ yol`bp mx{ ko no{ bollhb{ {eh mhnh
{r. [e`r `r hryhb`allp {}xh fo}yol`b`hr khal`nc s`{e hu{h}nal`{`hr o} {eh y}ov`r`on of yxml`b cookr. @n rxbe b`}bxdr{anbhr,
}dr banno{ b}hk`mlp bonvhp xnvh}`
amlh `nfo}da{`on mhbaxrh {eh`} yosh}fxl m`ar {osa}krshag yol`b`hr `r boddon gnoslhkch adonc khb`r`ondagh}r. [exr, hu`r{`nc dokhlr }hallpbanno{ bay{x}h {eh }olh of {eh
}d `n lommp`nc cadhr. Nhvh}{ehlhrr, sh reos {ea{
}dr banylap an `dyo}{an{ }olh mp `n
xhnb`nc {eh lommp`nc mheav`o} of o{eh} `n{h}hr{ c}oxyr. [ehbo}yo}a{h r{}a{hc`hr {ea{ abbodyl`re {e`r coal a}h {eh rxmjhb{ of ox} yayh}.Dor{ y}od`nhn{ adonc {ehrh r{}a{hc`hr `r {eh fxnk`nc of “ar{}o{x}f lommp`nc,— a {h}dbo`nhk mp Llopk Mhn{rhn, lonc${`dh Rhna{o} f}od [huar, {o khrb}`mh {eh a}{`
b`al c}arr$}oo{r badya`cnr {ea{ a}h b}ha{hk mp yxml`b }hla{`onr %Y])
}dr.
8
Onh rxbe
}d `r Kav`hrBoddxn`ba{`onr, seorh akvh}{`r`nc rapr “[}ak`{`onal lommp`nc `r no lonch} hnoxce. [okapnxdmh}r boxn{. [o s`n `n {eh eha}`nc }ood, pox dxr{ }habe ox{ {o b}ha{h c}arr}oo{r rxyyo}{.
1
Olron %1068) hlamo}a{hr a }a{`onal beo`bh dokhl of `n{h}hr{ c}oxy ab{`on, se`lh R{`clh} %1031) ayyl`hr {e`rayy}oabe {o {eh r{xkp of }hcxla{`on ryhb`
ballp.
=
Ghp ha}lp yayh}r `nblxkh {eorh of Yhl{zdan %1036) ank Mhbgh} %1052).
2
C}orrdan ank Ehlydan %=991) y}ov`kh an hubhllhn{ `n{}okxb{`on {o {eh do}h }hbhn{ {eho}h{`bal l`{h}a{x}hon `n{h}hr{ c}oxy yol`{`br.
;
Rhh, fo} huadylh, Loedann %1002) ank G}`rena ank Do}can %=991). [ehrh dokhlr, se`be mx`lk on {ehrhd`nal so}g of B}asfo}k ank Romhl %105=), dxr{ mh k`r{`ncx`rehk f}od dokhlr of {eh y}ov`r`on of “ea}k,—vh}`
amlh, `nfo}da{`on, ar analpzhk `n yayh}r rxbe ar D`lc}od ank ]omh}{r %1056).
8
R{axmh} ank ]ady{on %1008), y. 30.
1
 
[o ox{nxdmh} pox} oyyonhn{r, ball {eh lhak`nc c}arr}oo{r yxml`b a
﬉ 
a`}r boddxn`ba{`onrryhb`al`r{r.—
6
Kav`hr huyla`nr eos e`r
}d chnh}a{hr a “c}arr}oo{r— lh{{h}$s}`{`nc badya`cn{e}oxce {eh xrh of {hlhyeonh mangr:“Sh ch{ {ehd on {eh yeonh, ank se`lh sh‐}h on {eh yeonh sh rap ―S`ll pox s}`{ha lh{{h}?‐ ―Rx}h.―Ko pox eavh {`dh {o s}`{h `{?―No{ }hallp.‐ ―Boxlk
sh 
s}`{h{eh lh{{h} fo} pox? @ boxlk yx{ pox on {eh yeonh }`ce{ nos s`{e rodhonh seoboxlk ehly pox s}`{h a lh{{h}. Jxr{ eolk, sh eavh a s}`{h} r{ank`nc mp‐...@f {ehp‐}hblorh mp sh eank$khl`vh} `{. Sh eank$s}`{h `{ ox{ on ―l`{{lh g`{{p ba{ r{a{`onh}p‐`f `{‐r a l`{{lh olk lakp. @f `{‐r a mxr`nhrr sh {agh `{ ovh} {o mh yeo{oboy`hk onrodhonh‐r lh{{h}ehak. WShT xrh k`
﬉ 
h}hn{ r{adyr, k`
﬉ 
h}hn{ hnvhloyhr. Ch{{`nc ay`lh of yh}ronal`zhk lh{{h}r {ea{ eavh a k`
﬉ 
h}hn{ loog {o {ehd `r sea{ pox san{{o r{}`vh fo}.—
3
Onh huadylh of ar{}o{x}f lommp`nc `r {eh c}oxy Yhoylh fo} {eh Shr{!, se`be bea}ab{h}`zhr`{rhlf ar “a c}arr}oo{r badya`cn rxyyo}{`nc shr{h}n boddxn`{`hr.— @n 100=, 06( of {ehc}oxy‐r fxnk`nc badh f}od bo}yo}a{h ryonro}r rxbe ar NH]BO D`nh}alr, Bpy}xr D`nh}alr,Behv}on, ank Ehbla D`n`nc, seo eavh r{}onc `n{h}hr{r `n da`n{a`n`nc {eh Chnh}al D`n`ncAb{ of 153= {ea{ allosr {ehd {o abqx`}h ank d`nh yxml`b lankr a{ a bor{ of +8 yh} ab}h.[eh bea`}dan of YFS!, Mom Qx`bg, `r {eh na{`onal k`}hb{o} of r{a{h lhc`rla{`vh a
﬉ 
a`}r fo}Ara}bo, a d`n`nc bodyanp.
5
Ano{eh} huadylh `r {eh Bonrxdh} All`anbh, a D`be`can$marhknony}o
{ {ea{ oyyorhr lasr {o losh} {eh y}`bh of y}hrb}`y{`on k}xcr {o Dhk`ba`k ya}{`b`yan{rank o{eh} los$`nbodh b`{`zhnr. A yxml`b }hla{`onr
}d ballhk Monnh} & Arrob`a{hr‒fxnkhkmp {eh Yea}dabhx{`bal ]hrha}be ank Danxfab{x}h}r of Adh}`ba %Ye]DA)‒ xrhr Bonrxdh}All`anbh lh{{h}ehak {o rol`b`{ r`cna{x}hr `n rxyyo}{ of `{r yor`{`onr.
0
Ar{}o{x}f lommp`nc }hl`hr on {eh bovh}{ na{x}h of bo}yo}a{h ryonro}re`y `n abe`hv`nc `{rh
﬉ 
hb{`vhnhrr. On Khbhdmh} 10, 1008, Y}hr`khn{ Bl`n{on r`cnhk `n{o las {eh Lommp`nc K`r$blorx}h Ab{ of 1008, hr{aml`re`nc nhs }hc`r{}a{`on ank }hyo}{`nc }hqx`}hdhn{r fo} lommp`r{rso}g`nc fo} bo}yo}a{`onr, bea}`{`hr ank o{eh} nony}o
{ o}can`za{`onr hncachk `n h
﬉ 
o}{r {o`n
xhnbh lhc`rla{`vh ank huhbx{`vh m}anbe khb`r`onr. [eh 1008 Ab{ sar {eh
}r{ dajo} lhc$`rla{`on on lommp`nc `n nha}lp 89 pha}r, ank sar khr`cnhk {o y}ov`kh {}anrya}hnbp `n {ehlommp`nc y}obhrr. Ha}lp k}af{r of {eh Lommp`nc K`rblorx}h Ab{ `nblxkhk y}ov`r`onr }hqx`}`nc{eh }hc`r{}a{`on of 
}dr hncachk `n ar{}o{x}f lommp`nc, ank {eh }hyo}{`nc of {eh huyhnk`{x}hrdakh on {eorh ab{`onr. [eorh y}ov`r`onr, eoshvh}, fa`lhk {o dagh `{ ox{ of bodd`{{hh. Ar
6
R{axmh} ank ]ady{on %1008), y. 09.
3
R{axmh} ank ]ady{on %1008), yy. 50$01.
5
Fo} fx}{eh} kh{a`lr, rhh Ranbehz %1006).
0
Fo} do}h kh{a`lr, rhh B}a`c %=99=).
=

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