ineffective against a digital rebuild of the same radar using automatic widebandpseudorandom frequency hopping and digital signal and data processing.For convenience APA has defined the following nomenclature for upgrades of legacy Cold Warera systems:
Class 1 Upgrades
will involve the replacement of Soviet era electronic, electrical, electro-explosive and mechanical components which are obsoleted and no longer supportable, withcurrent production equivalents. Such upgrades retain the capabilities and limitations of theoriginal design, but extend its service life over the effective service life of the newcomponents.
will involve the replacement of Soviet era electronic, electrical, electro-explosive and mechanical components which are obsoleted and no longer supportable, withcurrent production equivalents, plus the replacement of key functional components such asradar receivers, transmitters, signal processors and data processors with modern digitalequivalents. Such upgrades expand the capabilities and performance of the system, andmore than often impact key EW parameters such as jam resistance, and radar detectionrange. As the original antennas and scan formats are retained, the design may still retainmany of the electronic vulnerabilities of the original.
Class 3 Upgrades
are mobility enhancements of Class 1 or 2 upgrades, where the launchersand often engagement radars are rehosted on new trailers, or rebuilt as fully self propelledunits on new built chassis. Such upgrades alter the fundamental regime of deployment andvastly enhance survivability, especially where the mobility upgrade replaces cables withdigital radio datalinks, and digital automation shortens deployment and stow times for thesystem, or the missile battery as a whole.
Class 4 Upgrades
involved hybridisation, where an entirely new engagement radar, andoften new acquisition radar, is introduced to fully supplant the legacy Soviet era radarscharacteristic of the weapon system. A Class 4 upgrade may be performed in parallel with aClass 1, 2 or 3 upgrade on the remaining system components.Table 1 shows some examples of legacy systems and available upgrades:
SystemClass 2Class 3Class 4SA-2 Guideline
TBDHQ-2B/J / SJ-202Possibly H-200 integrationPolish Newa-SCAlmaz-Antey Pechora 2ATetraedr Pechora 2T/2TMDefense Systems Pechora 2/2MPolish Newa-SCTetraedr Pechora 2TMDefense Systems Pechora 2/2MTBD
Tetraedr S-200N/AAlmaz-Antey S-300PMU2Almaz-Antey S-400
Kupol Osa AKMTetraedr Osa-1TN/ATBD
Tetraedr Buk MBAgat 9B-1103M-350N/ATBD
Hybridisation will present a major issue in coming years, exacerbating challenges indefeating digital variants of Soviet era systems. A sophisticated long range phased arrayengagement radar such as the 30N6E2 Tomb Stone or 92N2E Grave Stone when mated with alegacy missile system such as the SA-2, SA-3, SA-5 or SA-6 completely transforms thecapabilities of the legacy system. While the legacy missile round might be a stone axe bycontemporary standards, it becomes a stone axe hurled with high precision by a highlysurvivable and jam resistant state-of-the-art sensor system.In a sense, this development emulates the long established Western practice of matingsmart digital seekers to legacy unguided munitions to transform their capabilities. Theavailability of modern active radar seekers for legacy SAM rounds in the 2K12 Kub/Kvadrat /SA-6 Gainful system in fact directly follows the Western technology insertion pattern, withsimilar transformational impact.Upgrades to legacy air defence weapons are changing the air power game, as the Russianslearned in Georgia during their 2008 adventure. A good number of Russian aircraft were shotdown by Georgian SAM batteries, as their electronic countermeasures proved ineffective.What the Russians confronted in Georgia were legacy systems covertly upgraded with newhardware by Ukrainian defence contractors, active players in the global upgrade market.The Russian experience in Georgia is a lesson which remains to be understood by Westerndefence bureaucracies.
Technical Note #1 Hybridisation of Surface to Air Missile Systems