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Air Defence System Upgrades

Air Defence System Upgrades

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Last Updated: Tue Jun 12 09:47:46 UTC 2012
Legacy Air Defence System Upgrades
Technical Report APA-TR-2009-0601by Dr Carlo Kopp, AFAIAA, SMIEEE, PEngJune, 2009
Updated July,2009Updated May, August 2011Updated April, 2012Text ©2009-2012 Carlo Kopp
 BackgroundTechnical Note #1 Hybridisation of Surface to Air Missile SystemsTechnical Note #2 SAM Seeker RetrofitsTechnical Note #3 Agat Active Radar Seekers for SAM UpgradesTechnical Note #4 Anti-Radiation Seekers for SAM UpgradesLegacy System UpgradesHQ-2A/B / CSA-1 / S-75 / SA-2 Guideline SAM System UpgradesAlmaz-Antey S-75-2/S-75M3 Volga-2 UpgradeTetraedr S-75-2T Volga-2T UpgradePLA HQ-2/H-200 HybridisationPLA HQ-2B WXZ204 Tracked TEL UpgradeCuban SM-90/T-55 Tracked TEL UpgradeS-125 Neva/Pechora / SA-3 Goa SAM System UpgradesTetraedr S-125T/2T Pechora 2T/2TM UpgradesDefence Systems S-125-2M/2K Pechora 2M/2K UpgradeAlmaz-Antey S-125-2A Pechora 2A UpgradeCenrex Newa C/SC UpgradesCuban T-55 / 5P73 TELS-200VE Vega/SA-5 Gammon SAM System UpgradesAlmaz-Antey S-200 / S-300PMU1/2 Hybridisation UpgradeTetraedr/Almaz-Antey S-200VE Vega/SA-5 Gammon SAM SystemUpgrades2K12 ZRK Kub/Kvadrat/SA-6 Gainful SAM System UpgradesIraqi 3M9/R-60 Hybrid Heatseeking Gainful RoundKvadrat Air Defence Missile System Modernisation (1st stage)Tikhomirov NIIP Kub/Kvadrat Upgrade
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Hungarian Army UpgradeCzech Republic Army SURN CZ Upgrade9K33/9K33M2/M3 Osa/Romb / SA-8 Gecko SAM System UpgradesJSC Kupol Osa-AKM UpgradeTetraedr Osa-1T Upgrades9K35M4 Strela 10M4 / 9K35A Gyurza / SA-13 Gopher Upgrades9K35M4 Strela 10M4 TELAR Upgrade9K35A Gyurza 9A34M3/9A35M3 TELAR UpgradeZSU-23-4M4 Shilka SPAAGMAnnexes and SupplementsAnnex A Defence Systems S-125-2M Pechora 2M [IMINT] 
Air Defence Weapons were one of the primary exports of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pactduring the Cold War era. They were supplied as often as commercial products to wellmoneyed nations unfriendly to the West, as they were supplied as subsidised military aid todeveloping nations and Soviet satellite nations. Vast quantities of the S-75 Dvina / SA-2Guideline, S-125 / SA-3 Goa, 2K12 Kub/Kvadrat / SA-6 Gainful, 9K33 Romb/Osa / SA-8 Geckoand 9K31 Strela 1 / SA-9 Gaskin were manufactured and exported.When the Soviet Empire collapsed at the end of the Cold War, the global inventory of formerSoviet SAM systems, and associated radars and support equipment, became an importantsource of revenue vital to the survival of the enormous military-industrial complex spreadacross former Soviet Republics and former Warsaw Pact nations. Both manufacturers andoverhaul depots competed for business in providing spare parts, as well as radar, missile andequipment repairs and overhauls.The massive drawdown of the former Soviet and Warsaw Pact military machine also produceda surplus of equipment and warehoused warstocks of missiles and spare parts, much of which appeared on the global arms market at often bargain basement prices.A decade after the Cold War, technology insertion programmes and upgrades began toappear in the market. There were partly driven by market demands for better capabilities intheir air defence systems, but also partly driven by increasing difficulties in manufacturingobsolete technologies in a dramatically downsized industrial base. A prominent feature of many upgrades has been the complete replacement of hardwired analogue electronics withnew digital software based equipment, using COTS technology from the global marketplace.Two decades after the Cold War, the upgrade business is booming, and presents a majorcompetitor to sales of new build air defence systems. This should not be surprising, as asurvey of disclosed sales of the S-300PMU / SA-20 Gargoyle series SAM system puts the costper battery at US$100 million to US$200 million, depending on configuration and reloadstock quantities ordered.For many users the additional lethality and coverage footprint of new generation SAMs likethe S-300PMU1/2 and S-300VM becomes less attractive given the price tag, and they opt forupgrades to often substantial existing national investments in Soviet era air defencehardware.In terms of direct upgrades to legacy systems, the most prominent have been the variouspackages developed for the semi-mobile S-125 Pechora/Neva / SA-3 Goa and its SNR-125Low Blow engagement radar. Upgrades are also available for the S-200 Angara/Vega/Dubna /SA-5 Gammon and its 5N62 Square Pair engagement radar, as well as the 2K12 Kub/Kvadrat / SA-6 Gainful, the 9K33 Romb/Osa / SA-8 Gecko, and the 9K35 Strela 10 / SA-13 Gopher.These upgrades parallel a very similar trend observed in widely deployed legacy Soviet eraearly warning, search and acquisition radars. Upgrade packages are on offer for the P-14 TallKing, P-15 Flat Face, P-18 Spoon Rest, and P-35/37 Big Bar / Big Mesh / Bar Lock series.The more sophisticated upgrades increase the capability of these systems, with manyexamples increasing radar performance, jam resistance and track capabilities, and someexamples improving either mobility of the system, or the kinematic range of the missiles.From a Western perspective, the global proliferation of upgrades presents new and oftendifficult challenges. Western nations have an enormous material and intellectual investmentin electronic warfare equipment, and emitter databases, crafted around the idiosyncrasiesof legacy Soviet era SAM system and radar designs. Replacement of the original electronicswith new digital technology will more than often instantly obsolete much of thisinvestment. Jamming techniques which may have been effective against an SNR-125 LowBlow emitting a narrowband carrier with manual channel selection are apt to be entirely
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ineffective against a digital rebuild of the same radar using automatic widebandpseudorandom frequency hopping and digital signal and data processing.For convenience APA has defined the following nomenclature for upgrades of legacy Cold Warera systems:
Class 1 Upgrades
will involve the replacement of Soviet era electronic, electrical, electro-explosive and mechanical components which are obsoleted and no longer supportable, withcurrent production equivalents. Such upgrades retain the capabilities and limitations of theoriginal design, but extend its service life over the effective service life of the newcomponents.
Class 2
will involve the replacement of Soviet era electronic, electrical, electro-explosive and mechanical components which are obsoleted and no longer supportable, withcurrent production equivalents, plus the replacement of key functional components such asradar receivers, transmitters, signal processors and data processors with modern digitalequivalents. Such upgrades expand the capabilities and performance of the system, andmore than often impact key EW parameters such as jam resistance, and radar detectionrange. As the original antennas and scan formats are retained, the design may still retainmany of the electronic vulnerabilities of the original.
Class 3 Upgrades
are mobility enhancements of Class 1 or 2 upgrades, where the launchersand often engagement radars are rehosted on new trailers, or rebuilt as fully self propelledunits on new built chassis. Such upgrades alter the fundamental regime of deployment andvastly enhance survivability, especially where the mobility upgrade replaces cables withdigital radio datalinks, and digital automation shortens deployment and stow times for thesystem, or the missile battery as a whole.
Class 4 Upgrades
involved hybridisation, where an entirely new engagement radar, andoften new acquisition radar, is introduced to fully supplant the legacy Soviet era radarscharacteristic of the weapon system. A Class 4 upgrade may be performed in parallel with aClass 1, 2 or 3 upgrade on the remaining system components.Table 1 shows some examples of legacy systems and available upgrades:
SystemClass 2Class 3Class 4SA-2 Guideline
TBDHQ-2B/J / SJ-202Possibly H-200 integrationPolish Newa-SCAlmaz-Antey Pechora 2ATetraedr Pechora 2T/2TMDefense Systems Pechora 2/2MPolish Newa-SCTetraedr Pechora 2TMDefense Systems Pechora 2/2MTBD
SA-5 Gammon
Tetraedr S-200N/AAlmaz-Antey S-300PMU2Almaz-Antey S-400
SA-6 Gainful
SA-8 Gecko
Kupol Osa AKMTetraedr Osa-1TN/ATBD
SA-11 Gadfly
Tetraedr Buk MBAgat 9B-1103M-350N/ATBD
Hybridisation will present a major issue in coming years, exacerbating challenges indefeating digital variants of Soviet era systems. A sophisticated long range phased arrayengagement radar such as the 30N6E2 Tomb Stone or 92N2E Grave Stone when mated with alegacy missile system such as the SA-2, SA-3, SA-5 or SA-6 completely transforms thecapabilities of the legacy system. While the legacy missile round might be a stone axe bycontemporary standards, it becomes a stone axe hurled with high precision by a highlysurvivable and jam resistant state-of-the-art sensor system.In a sense, this development emulates the long established Western practice of matingsmart digital seekers to legacy unguided munitions to transform their capabilities. Theavailability of modern active radar seekers for legacy SAM rounds in the 2K12 Kub/Kvadrat /SA-6 Gainful system in fact directly follows the Western technology insertion pattern, withsimilar transformational impact.Upgrades to legacy air defence weapons are changing the air power game, as the Russianslearned in Georgia during their 2008 adventure. A good number of Russian aircraft were shotdown by Georgian SAM batteries, as their electronic countermeasures proved ineffective.What the Russians confronted in Georgia were legacy systems covertly upgraded with newhardware by Ukrainian defence contractors, active players in the global upgrade market.The Russian experience in Georgia is a lesson which remains to be understood by Westerndefence bureaucracies.
Technical Note #1 Hybridisation of Surface to Air Missile Systems
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