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Proceedingsofthe29thAsilomarConferenceonSignalsSystems&Computer
FundamentalsofCodingforBroadcastOFD
RichardD.Wese
 
andJohnM.Cio InformationSystemsLaboratorStanfordUniversity,Stanford,CA9430
Abstract 
Thesameinformationisoftenbroadcasttomanreceiversoverdierentfrequencyselectivechannels.Digitalaudiosignalsanddigitalvideosignalsarecommonlydistributedbysuchbroadcasts.Acodedmodu- lationtechniquefororthogonalfrequencydivisionmultiplexing(OFDM)ispresentedthatprovidesconsistentperformanceoveravarietyoffrequencyselective channels.Therangeofperformanceforanexampleof thenewschemeoverthreedierentfrequencyselectivechannelsis0.75dBat 
=1
ascomparedt4dBforacommonlyusedscheme.Thenewtechniqueemploysrelativelydensecon- stellationscombinedwithlowratecodesdesignedtallowthereceivertotakeadvantageofreliablesymbolstocompensateforunreliablesymbols.Frequenchoppedsystemsandatfadingsystemswithinterleavingcanalsobenetfromthenewtechnique.
1Introduction 
Multicarriermodulation,ororthogonalfrequencdivisionmultiplexing(OFDM),isanalternativetequalizedsinglecarriermodulation.Multicarrierisespeciallyattractiveinenvironmentswheresevereintersymbolinterference(ISI)makesequalizationdicult.TerrestrialwirelessbroadcastfrommultipletowersianexampleofasevereISIenvironmentwheremulticarrierisattractive1,2].Whenmulticarrierisusedforpointtopointcommunication,thecodedmodulationcanbeadaptedtthechannel,distributinginformationandpowerop- timallyamongthesubcarriers3].Howeverabroad- casttransmittermustuseasinglecodedmodulation thatwillprovideconsistentperformanceonavarietofchannels.InSection2,areviewofmulticarrierispresented.ThetheoreticallimitsofbroadcasttransmissionardiscussedinSection3.Section4presentscriteriafor 
 
ThisworkwassupportedbyanAT&TFoundationfellowshipandJSEPcontract#DAAH04-94-G-0058.Therstauthor canbereachedbyemailat 
wesel@isl.stanford.ed
.ThepapeisavailableatURLhttp://www-isl.stanford.edu/people/wesel.
thedesignofbroadcastcodedmodulationwithperiodicsymbolinterleaving.Section5usesthesecriteriatodesignanexamplecodedmodulation.Section 6presentssimulationresultscomparingthedesigned codedmodulationtoacommonlyusedCOFDMsystemforthreedierentfrequencyselectivechannels.Section7concludesthepaper.
2Multicarriermodulation 
Amulticarriertransmissionsystemthatcreates 
subcarriersinthefrequencydomainusingthediscretFouriertransform(DFT)isshowninFigure1.AshowninFigure2,themulticarriertransmissionsystemisequivalentt
parallelsubchannelseachcon- sistingofacomplexscalargai
andadditivewhitGaussainnoise(AWGN
.
idft channel df
...
...
Figure1:Multicarriermodulationsystem 
 
 
 
......Figure2:ParallelsubchannelsinfrequencThescalefactor
areexactlythevaluesofthe DFTofthechannelimpulseresponse.Acyclicprex (guardinterval)approximatelythelengthofthechannelimpulseresponsemustbeinsertedbetweeneac
 
DFTblockforthetransformationtoparallelchanneltobeexact.Itisassumedthat 
]
 
foral
.
3TheoreticalLimit
Foraxedsetoftransmitterpower
]
,the highestdataratepossibleonasetofsubchannelsde- scribedbyFigure2isthemutualinformation 
dened a
=
lo
 
1
]
 
 
:
(1Thevalueof 
aboveislessthanthechannelcapacityachievedbychoosingthevaluesof 
]
tohavtheoptimalwater{pouringdistribution4].Sincethe subcarrierSNRsarenotknownatabroadcasttransmitter,theoptimaldistributionofpowerisnotpossible.Furthermore,eachchanneloverwhichdataibeingbroadcasthasadierentoptimalpowerdistribution.Shannon'sfundamentalcodingtheoremensuresthat foreachAWGN{ISIchannelthereisacodethatwilpermitreliabletransmissionatrate 
inEq.(1).Can onecodeworkforallchannelswithrat
?RootanVaraiya's1968result5]ontheGaussiancompound channelimpliesthattheanswerisyes.Specically,givendatarat
andtransmitterpower
]
thereexistsa\universal"codethatwillreliablytransmitatrat
overallAWGN{ISIchannelsforwhic
I>
.Toachieve 
ontheoverallchannel,themutual information 
ofeachsubchannelmustbeachievewher
=lo
 
1
]
 
 
:
(2Thusconsistentperformancecanbeachievedonlyihighcapacitysubcarriersareabletoprovidethereceiverwiththeirfullpotentialofinformation.Asubchannelcannotprovidemorethan 
bitsof informationtothereceiverwher
isthebase2logof theconstellationsize.Thustheconstellationshoulbeaslargeaspossibletoallowthehighestcapacitsubcarrierstobefullyutilized.Thiscanbecontrasted withtheAWGNcasewher
isshouldalwaysb
+forarat
k=
code6].Practicalconsiderationssuch asprecisionlimithowlarge 
canbeinpractice.Still,
canbemadesucientlylargetoallowconsistent performanceontypicalISIchannels.
4Codedesignforperiodicinterleaving 
Theselargeconstellationsarecombinedwithlow ratecodesthatallowthereceivertousetheinforma- tionobtainedfromthehighcapacitysubchannelstcompensateforinformationunavailablefromthelow capacitysubchannels.Thissectionpresentscriteriusefulinthedesignofthesecodeswhenperiodicsymbolinterleavingisused.Subsection4.1reviewsperiodicinterleaving.Sub- section4.2introducestheperiodicdistancevector.Subsections4.3and4.4introduceperiodiceective codelengthandperiodicproductdistancewhicharcomputedfromtheperiodicdistancevectors.Subsection4.5presentsaprocedureforcodedmodulation designbasedonthesetwocriteria.
4.1Periodicinterleavin
RecallfromSection2thatthesubchannelgains 
arethevaluesoftheDFTofthechannelimpulsresponse.Sincethefrequencyresponseofatypical channeliscontinuous,subchannelgainsadjacentifrequencywillhavesimilarvalues.Alongsequenceof smallsubchannelgainsforconsecutivereceivedsymbolswilltypicallycauseadecodingerror.Toavoipoorperformance,consecutivecodesymbolsshoulnotbemappedtosubchannelsadjacentinfrequency.Interleavingisusedtoimplementadierentmap- pingofcodesymbolstosubchannels.Therearevarioustypesofinterleaving,andthechoiceofanin- terleaveraectshowwellaparticularcodedmodula- tionwillperform.Periodicsymbolinterleavingisuseinthispaper,andthecodedmodulationisdesignespecicallytogivegoodperformancewhencombinewithperiodicsymbolinterleaving.Periodicsymbolinterleavingcanbeimplementebywritingtheconstellationpointsintoamatrixcolumnbycolumnandthenreadingthemoutrowbyrow.Inamulticarriersystemwith512subchannels,periodicinterleavingwithperiod 
=8isaccomplishebywritingthecodedmodulationconstellationpoint
intoan
 
64matrixcolumnbycolumnandthereadingthesubchannelinputs 
rowbyrow.Thimatrixisshownbelowwithbothwriteandreadla- beling.
:::
50
1
50
.........
1
:::
51
:::
6
6
6
12
.........
44
45
:::
51
Aperiodicinterleaverwithperiod 
providesthe maximumpossibleseparationinfrequencyofany 
consecutivecodesymbols
+
:::c 
).How- ever,codewords 
an
aretransmittedonsub- channelsadjacentinfrequency.
 
4.2Periodicdistancevector
Supposethat 
an
aretwosequencesof constellationpointsthatarevalidoutputsofaparticu- larcodedmodulation.Denedistance
suchthat 
.Assumingamaximumlikelihooddecision betwee
an
,dene 
betheprobabilitofmistaking 
fo
.Whe
isperiodicallinterleavedsotha
 
istransmittedoversubchannelsasinFigure2,
decreasesas 
 
increases.Periodicinterleavingmapsadjacentsubchannelgains tocodewordswithindexesseparatedby 
.Sincead-  jacentsubchannelgainshavesimilarvalues,
 
 
 
 
 
j
:::
(3wher
isaninteger.Thesummation 
 
cabeapproximatedbysummingupallthesquareddistances 
whichhavethesameindexmodul
anthenmultiplyingthes
dierentdistancesumsby anappropriat
andsummingasshownbelow.
=
 
 
=
 
(4wher
=
j
:
(5Thevector
:::
]willbereferredtoasthe periodicdistancevector.Totheextentthattheabove approximationsarevalid,theperiodicdistancevector representsalltheinformationavailableaboutwhat valuesof 
 
arepossible.Recallthatlargevaluesof 
 
implysmallervaluesof 
.
4.3Periodiceectivecodelengt
Foragivencodedmodulation,thesmallestnumberofnonzeroelementsinaperiodicdistancevector forthatcodedmodulationwillbereferredtoasthe periodiceectivecodelength(PECL)ofthecodemodulation.LargervaluesofPECLallowmoresmalvaluesof 
tobetoleratedsinceatleastsomenonzerelementsseelargevaluesof 
.In7],Lapidothsuggesteddesigningcodestotransmiterrorfreeforthelargestpossiblenumberofera- suresintheperiodicerasurepatternresultingfromblockerasurechannelcombinedwithperiodicinterleaving.ThisisequivalenttomaximizingthePECL.ThePECLisessentiallyaperiodicversionofthe eectivecodelengthdiscussedbyWilsonandLeung 8],DivsalarandSimon9],andSundbergandSeshadri10].Thesepapersshowthattheeectivecode lengthindicatesthediversityprovidedbythecode.ThePECLindicatesthediversityprovidedbyacode combinedwithperiodicsymbolinterleaving.
4.4Periodicproductdistanc
Acodedmodulationisdesiredwhichperformswelforallchannelshaving 
 
whereIisdenediEq.(1)andRisthedesiredpersymbolinformation rate.Foranyparticularperiodicdistancevectortherisaparticularchannelwit
 
whichproducesthe smallestvalueof 
 
.Withoutlossofgenerality,assum
]
= 
=1.Neglectingthe1inEq.(1),thesetofchannelswit
 
isapproximatelythesetofchannelssatisfying 
lo
 
.Whe
0for 
2
:::P 
,thesmallestsum 
 
overthissetofchannelsi
=
=
:
(6Theaboveminimumvalueo
 
ismonotoniintheproductoftheelementsoftheperiodicdistance vector.Thusthisproductisagoodmetricforcode design.Foragivenconvolutionalcode,theperiodiproductdistanceoforder 
(PP
)isdenedasthe smallestproductofthenonzeroelementsofaperiodidistancevectorhavingexactl
nonzeroelements.AwiththePECL,theperiodicproductdistancesaressentiallyperiodicversionsoftheproductdistancediscussedin9,10].Maximizingtheproductdistanceimpliesspreading theavailableEuclideandistanceasevenlyaspossiblovertheperiodicdistancevector.Intuitively,thisidesirabletoachievegoodperformanceonavarietyof channelshavingdierentvaluesof 
.
4.5Designprocedur
Acodedmodulationschemeusingan 
staterate 
k=
convolutionalcodeandasignalmapperusing
pointconstellationistobedesignedtogivegood performanceinabroadcastmulticarriersystemwit
subcarriersusingperiodicsymbolinterleavingwitperio
.Typicall
,
,and 
arespeciedbeforthecodedmodulationisdesigned.AsdiscussediSection2,
shouldbemadeaslargeaspossible.Theremainingissuesarethechoiceof 
,thela- belingoftheconstellation,andthedesignofthecon- volutionalcodepolynomial.
shouldbeafactorof 
.Smallvaluesof 
makeitmorelikelythatsub- carriersinoneperiodwillbeindependentbymaking theirseparationinfrequency
N=
)larger.However,increasin
canallowlargervaluesofPECLuptopoint.Agoodinitialchoiceof 
istoincrease 
untithePECLstopsincreasing.

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