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Published by: Mohammad Jamal Owesat on Jul 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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There are 2 ways to mix gypsum: 
1- Mixing by the hand.2- Mechanical mixing.The important thing is to use scanning to get correct
(W:P)ratio.We need some time to do mixing and we have working time. When we putthe machine in tray then in patient mouth , after the material become toorigid .
We can detect if the material start initial setting by its appearance , thathappen when the material become not shiny >>>its called(
loss of gloss 
).At first the surface of the material is shiny and contain water but when thecomponent take part in reaction, water absorb inside .so, the material willnot be shiny or glossy any more (
dark appearance 
*****After this level you can’t manipulate any more .
 The material take
1 hour
to become rigid, but after you send it to the labthey can separate it from tray after
30 min
. But they can work on it after itbecome hard enough.When the powder mix with water crystallization take place (component ofpowder + water = crystal )when these crystal become large , the materialwill expand a little bit (crystal expand and interlock with each other), this iscontinue until the material become hard.
~~~ As we said we must have good proportional of water by usingscanning.Sometime Dentist have small package contain a certain amount of powderand you add a certain amount of water ( written on the package ) and startmixing >>>> this is make life easy ^___^.***
Final setting
of the material mean that you can handle it because itcooling ( the reaction is exothermic )***
setting expansion:
result from crystal growth during setting . can bedecreased by the addition of potassium sulfate, sodium chloride and borax.***
Hygroscopic expansion:
if gypsum soaked during setting , water fillspores and increase volume.For any material we should know the mixing time , working time and settingtime. So, we have TESTS which we do in the lab to detect these times.These tests depend mainly on the ability to penetrate of needle on thesurface of the material. (made marks on the surface ).We use needle attached to certain weight. after we mix the material andplace it in the tray we start to allow the needle to attach the surface andwait until it stop making mark. Once the material resist injection (no moremarks) >>>>> this indicate the setting time.These test called
test, because it dependon the resistance of material to penetrate or identate .
~loss of gloss >>>>> initial setting.
~other stages of setting is measure by needle test .
***Types of needle test : 
1- Vicat penetration (A) for setting.2- Gillmove test(B) for final setting time.(it take these name from person who done them )
~_~ please look to slide 29 : 
 this diagram show you the different stages of setting time.- At the bottom :at 10 min >>>loss of gloss stage .- With time strength and hardness increase until you reach the point ofready for use.There are clinical tip to make sure that you can use criteria:- Before separation cast from impression, ensure that no part of thetray is connected to the gypsum.- If alginate impression dried before cast separation, soak in water for15 min.
1- Its very important to know W:P ratio
Increasing water >>>retarded setting >>>weaker model or cast>>>inaccurate model
Decreasing water>>> shorter setting time >>>mix difficult tomanipulate >>> bubbles inclusion in mix >>>inaccurate model
Your material shouldn’t be watery or viscous, it should be in

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