Classical
Electrodynamics

1.1 Electrostatics

1.1.1 Coulomb’s law

1.2.1 Ampère’s law

1.2.2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld

1.3 Electrodynamics

1.3.1 Equation of continuity

1.3.2 Maxwell’s displacement current

1.3.4 Faraday’s law of induction

1.3.5 Maxwell’s microscopic equations

1.3.6 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations

1.4 Electromagnetic Duality

DUALITY OF THE ELECTROMAGNETODYNAMIC EQUATIONS EXAMPLE 1.1

2.1 The wave equation

2.2 Plane waves

2.2.1 Telegrapher’s equation

2.2.2 Waves in conductive media

2.3 Observables and averages

Electromagnetic
Potentials

3.1 The electrostatic scalar potential

3.2 The magnetostatic vector potential

3.3 The electromagnetic scalar and vector
potentials

3.3.1 Electromagnetic gauges

Lorentz equations for the electromagnetic potentials

Gauge transformations

The retarded potentials

The Electromagnetic
Fields

4.1 The magnetic ﬁeld

4.2 The electric ﬁeld

Relativistic
Electrodynamics

5.1 The special theory of relativity

5.1.1 The Lorentz transformation

5.1.2 Lorentz space

Metric tensor

Radius four-vector in contravariant and covariant form

Scalar product and norm

Invariant line element and proper time

Four-vector ﬁelds

The Lorentz transformation matrix

The Lorentz group

5.1.3 Minkowski space

5.2 Covariant classical mechanics

5.3 Covariant classical electrodynamics

5.3.1 The four-potential

5.3.2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials

5.3.3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor

Interactions of Fields
and Particles

6.1 Charged Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

6.1.1 Covariant equations of motion

Lagrange formalism

Hamiltonian formalism

6.2 Covariant Field Theory

6.2.1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interac-
tions

The electromagnetic ﬁeld

FIELD ENERGY DIFFERENCE EXPRESSED IN THE FIELD TENSOR EXAMPLE 6.1

Other ﬁelds

Interactions of Fields
and Matter

7.1 Electric polarisation and the electric
displacement vector

7.1.1 Electric multipole moments

7.2 Magnetisation and the magnetising ﬁeld

7.3 Energy and momentum

7.3.1 The energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory

7.3.2 The momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory

Electromagnetic
Radiation

8.1 The radiation ﬁelds

8.2 Radiated energy

8.2.1 Monochromatic signals

8.2.2 Finite bandwidth signals

8.3 Radiation from extended sources

8.3.1 Linear antenna

8.4 Multipole radiation

8.4.1 The Hertz potential

8.4.2 Electric dipole radiation

8.4.3 Magnetic dipole radiation

8.4.4 Electric quadrupole radiation

8.5. RADIATION FROM A LOCALISED CHARGE IN ARBITRARY MOTION 121

8.5 Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary
motion

8.5.1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials

8.5.2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge

THE FIELDS FROM A UNIFORMLY MOVING CHARGE EXAMPLE 8.1

THE CONVECTION POTENTIAL AND THE CONVECTION FORCE EXAMPLE 8.2

Radiation for small velocities

8.5.3 Bremsstrahlung

8.5.4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation

Cyclotron radiation

Synchrotron radiation

Radiation in the general case

Virtual photons

8.5.5 Radiation from charges moving in matter

Vavilov- ˇCerenkov radiation

Formulae

F.1 The Electromagnetic Field

F.1.1 Maxwell’s equations

F.1.2 Fields and potentials

Vector and scalar potentials

Lorentz’ gauge condition in vacuum

F.1.3 Force and energy

Maxwell’s stress tensor

F.2 Electromagnetic Radiation

F.2.1 Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave

F.2.2 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution

F.2.3 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole

F.2.4 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole

F.2.5 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole

F.2.6 The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion

F.2.7 The ﬁelds from a point charge in uniform motion

F.3 Special Relativity

F.3.1 Metric tensor

F.3.2 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors

F.3.3 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector

F.3.4 Invariant line element

F.3.5 Four-velocity

F.3.6 Four-momentum

F.3.7 Four-current density

F.3.8 Four-potential

F.3.9 Field tensor

F.4 Vector Relations

F.4.1 Spherical polar coordinates

Directed line element

F.4.2 Vector formulae

Special relations

Integral relations

M.1 Scalars, Vectors and Tensors

M.1.1 Vectors

Radius vector

M.1.2 Fields

Scalar ﬁelds

Vector ﬁelds

Tensor ﬁelds

M.1.3 Vector algebra

Scalar product

Dyadic product

Vector product

THE LAPLACIAN AND THE DIRAC DELTA EXAMPLE M.8