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EE242 Paper Design

EE242 Paper Design

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Battery Charger Paper Design 2kW
Battery Charger Paper Design 2kW

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Cyril Aloysius A. Quinto on Jul 06, 2012
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DESIGN OF 250 A- HR SEALED LEAD ACID BATTERY CHARGER
Cyril Aloysius Quinto Industrial Electronics, EE242University of the Philippines - Diliman
Abstract:
This paper aims to come up with a sealed lead acid battery charger for a 250 Ampere-Hour, 96V Series Battery Bank System comprised of 48 cells with a flat voltage of 1.7V/cell, 2V/cell nominaland a boost voltage at 2.4 V/cell. Imaxdc will be 25A resulting to a 10-12.5-hour charging time. It is expected to go on a trickle charging mode of 2A at the boost voltage. Protection circuit against shorted batteries is to be employed.
OVERVIEW
The basic lead acid battery is an old type of battery and has seen different charging methods over the years. The lead acid chemistry is fairly tolerant of overcharging which prompts for cheap chargers.Unregulated transformer
based chargers consists of a wall mount transformer and a diode which normally delivers
1
3 to
1
4 Volts over a reasonablecurrent range which can charge a 6
cell
1
2 V battery. However, as the current tapersoff, its voltage rises to
1
5 to
1
8V commencing the electrolysis of the water in thebattery. This is tolerable with sealed lead acid batteries since they can recycle thegenerated gasses as long as they are being overcharged at less than
1
/3 of itscapacity. However, leaving the battery at an overcharged state for a week at even
1
/
1
0 of its capacity will result to corroded plates. At times, taper chargers like thisare made to operate on either a constant current or constant voltage. Regulating thetaper charger is a better and cheaper alternative. The voltage is not allowed to climbhigher than the trickle charge voltage.A lead acid battery charger
s added challenge is to have some kind of protection from shorted batteries. A shorted battery has the potential to deliver aextremely high current in a short amount of time (5 to
1
5 ms). The absence of protection may lead to the battery becoming a fuse.Furthermore, the battery
s state of charge and temperature offer modifyingeffects on the internal resistance of SLAs. As they age, their internal resistances risedue to corrosion of the positive grid, changes in active material structure andelectrolyte dry out.In deciding on the amount of charging current, the total internal resistance isto be considered. The total resistance of a series battery bank is the sum of theirinternal resistances plus external resistances such as interconnection hardware andcircuit protection circuits.
 
With these requirements in mind, this paper looks into a plausible designwithout regard for cost.
PRINCIPLE / THEORY OF OPERATION
Topology Used 
The requirement of 25A max charging current for a 96V series lead acidbattery bank prompted the use of a buck 
fed open
loop interleaved full bridgeresonant converter. This is to guarantee lesser output voltage ripple, and a smallersize for the magnetics. Resonant switching was considered to minimize theswitching losses for the charger.Fig.
1
below shows the process of the blocks of the charger.Power factor correction was not considered in the design. As an input to thebuck, two wein
bridge rectifiers were wired in parallel. This is to properly handlethe input current. The rectifiers turn the 220Vac
264Vac into a DC voltage with a
1
0% ripple. The buck regulates the input to the open
loop interleaved full bridgeresonant converter. The resonant converter results into a nearly sinusoidal current waveform.
 Battery Setup
Instead of putting the 96V series battery bank into a single pack, the bank iscomprised of eight 
1
2V 6
cell batteries. A series battery system will normally haveboth weaker and stronger cells. One of these cells will be fully discharged before therest of them. For a 3
cell battery, the total voltage will then be less than
1
/3 of theexpected voltage, making it easy to determine. However, for a
1
0
cell battery, thiswill only amount to
1
0% drop from the expected voltage.Each of the eight 
1
2V 6
cell battery
s voltage is monitored. The table belowindicates the expected voltages.Boost Voltage
1
4.4VNominal Voltage
1
2VFlat Voltage
1
0.2VHowever, there maybe cases wherein 5 cells are already in their boost voltage while one is already dead. This will register a 2.4V/cell* 5cells =
1
2V
BRIDGERECTIFIERBUCKINTERLEAVEDFULL BRIDGE
96V SEALEDLEAD ACIDBATTERYBANK
 
reading. A lot of possible scenarios may present a misreading which necessitates forthe charger to monitor the current in the battery bank. This scheme is shown in theschematics (battery monitoring and setup).
Protection Circuits/ Trickle Charging
In DC systems, a shorted battery can deliver an extremely high current in ashort amount of time. This current may be equal to the battery
s open circuit voltage/internal resistance. The total internal resistance of a string of batteries isgiven by the sum of the individual internal resistance of the battery and the wireconnection between the batteries. For new batteries, both the state of charge andtemperature have modifying effects on the battery
s internal resistance.BatteryTemperatureChargeVoltage percellCharge Voltage for a
1
2 Volt batteryGassingVoltageper cellGassing Voltage for a
1
2V battery
20
°
C *2.67 to 2.76
1
6.02 to
1
6.562.97
1
7.82
‐1
0
°
C *2.6
1
to 2.70
1
5.66 to
1
6.22.65
1
5.90
°
C *2.55 to 2.65
1
5.3 to
1
5.92.54
1
5.24
1
0
°
C2.49 to 2.59
1
4.94 to
1
5.542.47
1
4.8220
°
C2.43 to 2.53
1
4.58 to
1
5.
1
82.4
1
5
1
4.4925
°
C2.40 to 2.50
1
4.40 to
1
5.002.39
1
4.3430
°
C2.37 to 2.47
1
4.22 to
1
4.822.365
1
4.
1
940
°
C2.3
1
to 2.4
1 1
3.86 to
1
4.462.33
1
3.9850
°
C2.25 to 2.35
1
3.5 to
1
4.
1
02.3
1
3.8The charger design takes into account the temperature of each of the eight 
1
2V battery. Making use of the table from Powerstream shown above, thetemperatures of each of the eight 
1
2V battery are monitored. Both the thermal,current and voltage monitors can be used to determine how much output voltage isto be offered on the battery bank.In case one of the cells in a
1
2V battery is shorted, besides the voltagemonitor, the temperature monitor will enable the short circuit protection to isolatethe
1
2V battery from the system. An SCR is to be triggered to shunt the current awayfrom the
1
2V 6cell battery.In the event that a shorted battery is detected, the DSP FBDisable from the DSP is asserted. This time, the regulation of the output is to becontrolled by the DSP by regulating via the duty of the buck and, hence, the output of 

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