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Prime Numbers without Mystery - Final Solution

# Prime Numbers without Mystery - Final Solution

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This is the first paper published in 2004 at Mathpreprints.com (site no longer available). Widely acessed by the math comunity at that time.
This is the first paper published in 2004 at Mathpreprints.com (site no longer available). Widely acessed by the math comunity at that time.

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08/21/2013

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1
PRIME NUMBERS WITHOUT MYSTERY
FINAL SOLUTION
Jânia DuhaABSTRACT
To try understand the rule of prime numbers on the scenario of natural numbers is one of the mostinteresting tasks in mathematics today.In this work we present a model that shows how prime numbers appear in the natural sequence 1, 2, 3, ...,where they are hidden, and how to find then with 100% certainty.We also show that prime numbers should not be known as "random numbers", because they are notrandom at all. In fact, they follow a set of periodic patterns that can be easily found and understood.
INTRODUCTION
Natural numbers are a very simple sequence of all possible numbers that you will find if you add 1 to theprevious number in the sequence. The first number is one, the second is 1+1=2, the third is 2+1=3, and soon:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,...
The number one is a construct number. By adding one successively you construct all the sequence. Butthe second and the third number can provide a good part of the sequence too. With the two we have (inbolt)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 1415161718192021222324 25 26 27 28 293031
With the three we have:
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 1415161718192021222324 25 26 27 28 293031
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
But, note that some numbers are provided by the two and the three simultaneously. We will call theserepeated numbers (6, 12, 18, 24, 30…) as the "knots" of the sequence (in shadow):
2 4 6 8 10

12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30...
1 2 3 4 5

6 78 9 101112 131415161718192021222324 2526 27 28 293031
3

6 9

12 15 18 21 24 27 30
Note also, that these knots have always a number on the left and a number on the right side that cannot beprovided by the two or the three. Let us call this special numbers as “prime numbers”. If you look morecarefully you will note that some of these numbers are pure (can be divided only by 1 and by their selves)and some are composite, or else, they can be divided also by other numbers (but, only prime numbers asdefined in this work: numbers on the left and right hand sides of the knots). So, the numbers around theknots can be “pure prime numbers” (pp) or “composite prime numbers” (cp).

2The cp numbers are composed by the multiplication of prime numbers solely, or else: 5x5=25, 5x7=35,5x11=55, 5x13=65, 5x17=85, etc.; and 7x7=49, 7x11=77, 7x13=91, etc.; and 11x11=121, 11x13=143,etc.; and so on, for all the sequence of prime numbers.
Table 1 –
Composite prime numbers.
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 Periodicity
25 55 85 115 145
5
35 65 95 125
30
10-20
49 91 133 175
7
77 119 161 203
42
28-14
121 187 253 319
11
143 209 275
66
22-44
169 247 325
13
221 299 377
78
52-26
289 391 493
17
323 425
102
34-68
361 475
19
437 551
114
76-38
These composite primes are very easy to calculate and it is also very easy to predict their behaviorthrough the infinity because they present a clear periodicity as shown in the Table 1The sequence of prime numbers and theirs knots are even more easy to calculate and to predict. The knotsstart at 6 and will appear always at intervals of six also: 6, 6+6=12, 12+6=18, 18+6=24, 24+6=30, etc.You can be 100% sure that on the left and on the right side of a knot you will find a prime number. But if you want a “pure prime” number so, what you need to do it’s only identify the “composite primes” andeliminate them. All that will remain is the pure primes that you are seeking“prime numbers” = “pure primes” + “composite primes”so“pure primes” = “prime numbers” - “composite primesSo, now we point to the fact that if the primes and the composite primes have a predictable behavior (withclear periodicities), the "pure primes" should be predictable, too.Next, we will show the knots (shadow), the "pc" numbers (bolt) and the "pp" numbers (bolt underlined)form 5 to 100:
5
6
7
8 9 10
11
12
13
141516
17
18
19
202122
23
24
25
26 27 28
29
30
31
32 33 34
35

36
37
383940
41

42
43
444546
47

48
49
50 51 52
53

54
55
56 57 58
59

60
61
626364
65
66
67
686970
71
72
73
74 75 76
77
78
79
80 81 82
83
84
85
868788
89
90
91
929394
95
96
97
98 99 100

To obtain all possible pure primes from one to a number as big as one can possible image, you have onlyto follow the simple rules described above. One by one, the pure primes will appear with 100% of accuracy without the need of any proof of primarility.
THE EQUATIONS1. Prime numbers - "p"

3 Prime numbers, as defined above in this work
p
1
= 5 , p
2
= 7 , p
3
= 11 , p
4
= 13 , p
5
= 17 , p
6
= 19, p
7
= 23, p
8
= 25,
,
can be obtained through the following simple relation:
p
= 6

±
1 ,
with
= 1, 2, 3, 4.... ,
or else
16
2
+=
p
,for the primes on the right side, and
16
12
=
p
for the primes on the left side.
2. Composite prime numbers – "cp"
Multiplying all possible primes we obtain:
nn
p pcp

11
.
=
with
n
= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, .....

nn
p pcp

22
.
=
with
n
= 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, .....

nn
p pcp

33
.
=
with
n
= 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, .....

M

M
Examples:
cp
11
=
p
1
.
p
1
= 5 . 5 = 25
cp
12
=
p
1
.
p
2
= 5 . 7 = 35
cp
13
=
p
1
.
p
3
= 5 . 11 = 55or
cp
22
=
p
2
.
p
2
= 7 . 7 = 49
cp
23
=
p
2
.
p
3
= 7 . 11 = 77
cp
24
=
p
2
.
p
4
= 7 . 13 = 91or
cp
33
=
p
3
.
p
3
= 11 . 11 = 121
cp
34
=
p
3
.
p
4
= 11 . 13 = 143
cp
35
=
p
3
.
p
5
= 11 . 17 = 187
Generalizing this relations
2.1 Left-Prime & Left-Prime
( ) (
1616
=
lcp
nm
*
,
))))
,
= 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,
l
=
,
+1,
+2 ... ,
m
= 2
-1,
n
= 2
l
-1
2.2 Left Prime & Right-Prime
( ) (
1616
+=
lcp
nm
*
,
,
= 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,
l
=
,
+1,
+2, …,
m
= 2
-1,
n
= 2
l

2.3 Right-Prime & Left-Prime
( ) (
1616
+=
l*cp
m,n
,
= 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,
l
=
+1,
+2,
+3, ...,
m
= 2
,
n
= 2
l
-1
2.4 Right-Prime & Right-Prime
( ) (
7373
++=
l*cp
m,n
,
= 0, 2, 4, 6, ... (
m
=
+ 2),
l
=
,
+2,
+4, …,
m
= 2
,
n
= 2
l