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Prime Numbers without Mystery - Final SolutionRatings:

4.5

(1)|Views: 2,451|Likes: 18Published by jdbooks1

This is the first paper published in 2004 at Mathpreprints.com (site no longer available). Widely acessed by the math comunity at that time.

This is the first paper published in 2004 at Mathpreprints.com (site no longer available). Widely acessed by the math comunity at that time.

Published by: jdbooks1 on Jan 09, 2009

Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/9934900/Prime-Numbers-without-Mystery-Final-Solution

08/21/2013

text

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1

PRIME NUMBERS WITHOUT MYSTERY

FINAL SOLUTION

Jânia DuhaABSTRACT

To try understand the rule of prime numbers on the scenario of natural numbers is one of the mostinteresting tasks in mathematics today.In this work we present a model that shows how prime numbers appear in the natural sequence 1, 2, 3, ...,where they are hidden, and how to find then with 100% certainty.We also show that prime numbers should not be known as "random numbers", because they are notrandom at all. In fact, they follow a set of periodic patterns that can be easily found and understood.

INTRODUCTION

Natural numbers are a very simple sequence of all possible numbers that you will find if you add 1 to theprevious number in the sequence. The first number is one, the second is 1+1=2, the third is 2+1=3, and soon:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,...

The number one is a construct number. By adding one successively you construct all the sequence. Butthe second and the third number can provide a good part of the sequence too. With the two we have (inbolt)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30...

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 1415161718192021222324 25 26 27 28 293031

With the three we have:

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30...

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 1415161718192021222324 25 26 27 28 293031

3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30

But, note that some numbers are provided by the two and the three simultaneously. We will call theserepeated numbers (6, 12, 18, 24, 30…) as the "knots" of the sequence (in shadow):

2 4 6 8 10

12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30...

1 2 3 4 5

6 78 9 101112 131415161718192021222324 2526 27 28 293031

3

6 9

12 15 18 21 24 27 30

Note also, that these knots have always a number on the left and a number on the right side that cannot beprovided by the two or the three. Let us call this special numbers as “prime numbers”. If you look morecarefully you will note that some of these numbers are pure (can be divided only by 1 and by their selves)and some are composite, or else, they can be divided also by other numbers (but, only prime numbers asdefined in this work: numbers on the left and right hand sides of the knots). So, the numbers around theknots can be “pure prime numbers” (pp) or “composite prime numbers” (cp).

2The cp numbers are composed by the multiplication of prime numbers solely, or else: 5x5=25, 5x7=35,5x11=55, 5x13=65, 5x17=85, etc.; and 7x7=49, 7x11=77, 7x13=91, etc.; and 11x11=121, 11x13=143,etc.; and so on, for all the sequence of prime numbers.

Table 1 –

Composite prime numbers.

5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 Periodicity

25 55 85 115 145

5

35 65 95 125

30

10-20

49 91 133 175

7

77 119 161 203

42

28-14

121 187 253 319

11

143 209 275

66

22-44

169 247 325

13

221 299 377

78

52-26

289 391 493

17

323 425

102

34-68

361 475

19

437 551

114

76-38

These composite primes are very easy to calculate and it is also very easy to predict their behaviorthrough the infinity because they present a clear periodicity as shown in the Table 1The sequence of prime numbers and theirs knots are even more easy to calculate and to predict. The knotsstart at 6 and will appear always at intervals of six also: 6, 6+6=12, 12+6=18, 18+6=24, 24+6=30, etc.You can be 100% sure that on the left and on the right side of a knot you will find a prime number. But if you want a “pure prime” number so, what you need to do it’s only identify the “composite primes” andeliminate them. All that will remain is the pure primes that you are seeking“prime numbers” = “pure primes” + “composite primes”so“pure primes” = “prime numbers” - “composite primes”So, now we point to the fact that if the primes and the composite primes have a predictable behavior (withclear periodicities), the "pure primes" should be predictable, too.Next, we will show the knots (shadow), the "pc" numbers (bolt) and the "pp" numbers (bolt underlined)form 5 to 100:

5

6

7

8 9 10

11

12

13

141516

17

18

19

202122

23

24

25

26 27 28

29

30

31

32 33 34

35

36

37

383940

41

42

43

444546

47

48

49

50 51 52

53

54

55

56 57 58

59

60

61

626364

65

66

67

686970

71

72

73

74 75 76

77

78

79

80 81 82

83

84

85

868788

89

90

91

929394

95

96

97

98 99 100

To obtain all possible pure primes from one to a number as big as one can possible image, you have onlyto follow the simple rules described above. One by one, the pure primes will appear with 100% of accuracy without the need of any proof of primarility.

THE EQUATIONS1. Prime numbers - "p"

3 Prime numbers, as defined above in this work

p

1

= 5 , p

2

= 7 , p

3

= 11 , p

4

= 13 , p

5

= 17 , p

6

= 19, p

7

= 23, p

8

= 25,

∞

,

can be obtained through the following simple relation:

p

= 6

k

±

1 ,

with

k

= 1, 2, 3, 4.... ,

or else

16

2

+=

k p

k

,for the primes on the right side, and

16

12

−=

−

k p

k

for the primes on the left side.

2. Composite prime numbers – "cp"

Multiplying all possible primes we obtain:

nn

p pcp

11

.

=

with

n

= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, .....

nn

p pcp

22

.

=

with

n

= 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, .....

nn

p pcp

33

.

=

with

n

= 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, .....

M

M

Examples:

cp

11

=

p

1

.

p

1

= 5 . 5 = 25

cp

12

=

p

1

.

p

2

= 5 . 7 = 35

cp

13

=

p

1

.

p

3

= 5 . 11 = 55or

cp

22

=

p

2

.

p

2

= 7 . 7 = 49

cp

23

=

p

2

.

p

3

= 7 . 11 = 77

cp

24

=

p

2

.

p

4

= 7 . 13 = 91or

cp

33

=

p

3

.

p

3

= 11 . 11 = 121

cp

34

=

p

3

.

p

4

= 11 . 13 = 143

cp

35

=

p

3

.

p

5

= 11 . 17 = 187

Generalizing this relations

2.1 Left-Prime & Left-Prime

( ) (

1616

−−=

lk cp

nm

*

,

))))

,

k

= 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,

l

=

k

,

k

+1,

k

+2 ... ,

m

= 2

k

-1,

n

= 2

l

-1

2.2 Left Prime & Right-Prime

( ) (

1616

+−=

lk cp

nm

*

,

,

k

= 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,

l

=

k

,

k

+1,

k

+2, …,

m

= 2

k

-1,

n

= 2

l

2.3 Right-Prime & Left-Prime

( ) (

1616

−+=

l*k cp

m,n

,

k

= 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,

l

=

k

+1,

k

+2,

k

+3, ...,

m

= 2

k

,

n

= 2

l

-1

2.4 Right-Prime & Right-Prime

( ) (

7373

++=

l*k cp

m,n

,

k

= 0, 2, 4, 6, ... (

m

=

k

+ 2),

l

=

k

,

k

+2,

k

+4, …,

m

= 2

k

,

n

= 2

l

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