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Fullpaper UII Mada'Sanjaya'WS

Fullpaper UII Mada'Sanjaya'WS

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Dynamics and Complexity of FitzHugh-Nagumo Neuronal Systems
Mada Sanjaya W. S
1
, Muhammad Yusuf 
1
, Agus Kartono
1
,
Irzaman
2
 
1
Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematical and NaturalSciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.
2
Applied Physics Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematical and NaturalSciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.
e-mail : madasws@gmail.com
Abstract
 System of signals propagation from one neuron to another represent event of verycomplex electrochemical mechanism This work adresses the dynamics andcomplexity of neuron mathematical models. The aim is first the understanding of thebiological meaning of existing mathematical systems concerning neurons such asHodgkin-Huxley or FitzHugh-Nagumo models. The local stability and the numericalasymptotic analysis of FitzHugh-Nagumo model are then developed in order tocomprehend the dynamic evolution of a single FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron. Thisexamination naturally comes to the study of neuron networks. The analysis of thesenetworks uses the synchronization theory via connections between neurons and cangive rise to emergent properties and self-organization. Our result leads to a classicallaw which describes many self-organized complex systems like earthquakes,linguistic or urban systems. This has been performed using numerical tools.
Keyword
: Hodgkin-Huxley models, FitzHugh-Nagumo, action potentials,synchronization, chaos.
Introduction
Understanding the mechanisms of thepropagation of the nerve activity is one of the fundamental problems in biophysics.The first detailed quantitativemeasurements of the ionic currents wereperformed by Hodgkin and Huxley in theearly 50-s (Hodgkin & Huxley, 1952).Using the voltage clamp technique, theywere able to measure the kinetics of Na+and K+ currents in the squid giant axon.This led them to a set of differentialequations which describe the dynamics of the action potential. Furthermore, bycombining these equations with the cableequation for spreading of current in theaxon they were able to calculate the shapeand velocity of the propagating actionpotentials (Hodgkin & Huxley, 1952). Thepredictions of their model turned out to bein a remarkably good agreement with theexperimental observations.Hodgkin-Huxley model for the actionpotential of a space clamped squid axon isde_ned by the four dimensional vectorfield. with variables (
v
;
m
;
n
;
h
) thatrepresent membrane potential, activationof a sodium current, activation of apotassium current, and inactivation of thesodium current and a parameter I thatrepresents injected current into the space-clamped axon. Although there areimproved models the Hodgkin-Huxleymodel remains the paradigm forconductance-based models of neuralsystem. FitzHugh was the firstinvestigator to apply qualitative phase-plane methods to understanding theHodgkin-Huxley model. To make
 
 2
headway in gaining analytic insight,FitzHugh first considered the variablesthat change most rapidly, viewing allothers as slowly varying parameters of thesystem. In this way he derived a reducedtwo-dimensional system that could beviewed as a phase plane.
 
From theHodgkin-Huxley equations FitzHughnoticed that the variables
and
m
changemore rapidly than h and n, at least duringcertain time intervals. By arbitrarilysetting h and n to be constant we canisolate a set of two equations whichdescribe a two-dimensional (
;
m
) phaseplane. The elegance of applying phaseplane methods and reduced systems of equations to this rather complicatedproblem should not be underestimated.Determining the dynamical behaviorof an ensemble of coupled neurons is animportant problem in computationalneuroscience. Commonly used models forthe study of individual neuron whichdisplay spiking behavior (FitzHugh, 1961;Nagumo, 1962; Hodgkin, 1952). From thevery beginning of the research in the fieldof computational neuroscience, peopledeal with single neuron and its behavior.Present trends of research includeinvestigation of the behavior of neuronsconsidered in a network and their way tofire synchronously. It is assumed that theactivities in the brain are synchronous andunderlying interests for synchronization of nonlinear oscillators in physical andbiological systems range from novelcommunication strategies to understandhow large and small neural assembliesefficiently and sensitively achieve desiredfunctional goal. In recent years, there hasbeen tremendous interest for the study of the synchronization of chaotic systems.The phenomenon of synchronism givesrise to different dynamical behaviors suchas chaotic synchronization etc (Belykh, I& Shilnikov, A., 2008). In (Mishra, 2006),nonlinear dynamical analysis on singleand coupled modified FitzHugh-Nagumomodel under steady current stimulation iscarried out. Also the effect of parametervariation on its behavior is investigated.
Mathematical Models
 Basics Models of Neuron
To describe the evolution of themembrane potential V in the squid giantaxon (Hodgkin, A.L & Huxley,A.F.,1952) developed the followingconductance-based model:
eks L L Na Na
 I vvgvvvngvvhmvg dt dv
)())(()()( 1
43
 
nvnv dt dn
nn
)()1)((
  
 
mvmv dt dm
mm
)()1)((
  
(1)
hvhv dt dh
hh
)()1)((
  
 The peak conductances
g
, reversalpotentials E and rate coefficients and of the individualcurrents and gating variables
m, n
and
h
 are given by :
110 / )40(
)1)(40(1.0)(
vm
evv
 
,
18 / )65(
4)(
vm
ev
 
 
20 / )65(
07.0)(
vh
ev
 
,
110 / )35(
)1()(
vh
ev
 
 
110 / )55(
)1)(55(01.0)(
vn
evv
 
,
80 / )65(
125.0)(
vn
ev
 
 
For I = 0, the membrane potential settlesinto a resting potential of about V =
−65
mV.
 
 3
And with the
g
 Na
= 120,
g
 
= 36,
g
 L
 
= 0.3mmho cm
-2
,
v
 Na
 
= 50 mV,
v
= -77 mVand
v
 L
= -54.4 mV.
 
(a) (b)
Figure 1
. Dinamical Systems in Hodgkin_huxley models at
= 0 ; (a) Action potentials at
= 5 ms, (b) variable
m, h
and
n
at
= 5 ms.
 FitzHugh-Nagumo Models of Single Neuron
In 1961 FitzHugh proposed todemonstrate that the Hodgkin-Huxleymodel belongs to a more general class of systems that exhibit the properties of excitability and oscillations. As afundamental prototype, the van der Poloscillator was an example of this class,and FitzHugh therefore used it (aftersuitable modification). A similar approachwas developed independently by Nagumoin 1962. FitzHugh proposed the followingequations:
)(31
3
bwavdt dw I wvv dt dv
 
(2)
In these equations the variable
v
represents the excitability of the systemand could be identified with voltage(membrane potential in the axon);
w
is arecovery variable, representing combinedforces that tend to return the state of theaxonal membrane to rest. Finally I is theapplied stimulus that leads to excitation(such as input current), or rectangularpulses.
Local Dynamics and Bifurcation
Let us consider the FitzHugh-Nagumosystem (2), Equilibria are given by thefollowing system :
0 / ,0 / 
dt dwdt dv
(3)
 
The nature of this equilibria isgiven by the study of the eigenvalues of the jacobian matrix J of this system :
  
bv J 
11
2
(4)
We obtain the following polynomialequation :
0)ˆ()ˆ1(
222
      
vbbbv
(5)

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