Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
4 the Dynamics

4 the Dynamics

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12 |Likes:
Published by Mada Sanjaya Ws

More info:

Published by: Mada Sanjaya Ws on Jul 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/02/2014

pdf

text

original

 
JournalofSustainabilityScienceandManagementVolume
6
Number
2,December2011:215-223
ISSN:1823-8556
©
UniversitiMalaysiaTerengganuPublisher
THEDYNAMICSOFATHREE-SPECIESFOODCHAININTERACTIONMODELWITHMICHAELIS-MENTENTYPEFUNCTIONALRESPONSE
ZABIDINSALLEH\MADASANJAYAWS1.2,MUSTAFAMAMAT*\ANDNOORMAIZURAMOHAMADNOOR3
'DepartmentofMathematics,"DepartmentofComputerScience,FacultyofScienceandTechnology,UniversitiMalaysiaTerengganu,21030KualaTerengganu,Terengganu,Malaysia.
2
DepartmentofPhysics,FacultyofScienceandTechnology,UniversitasIslamNegeriSunanGunungDjati,Bandung,Indonesia."Correspondingauthor:mus@umt.edu.my
Abstract:
In
thispaper,westudyanecologicalmodelwithatritrophicfoodchaincomposedofaclassicalLotka-Volterrafunctionalresponseforpreyandpredator,andaMichaelis-Menten-typefunctionalresponseforpredatorandtoppredator.Therearetwoequilibriumpointsofthesystem.Intheparameterspace,therearepassagesfrominstabilitytostability,whicharecalledHopfbifurcationpoints.Forthefirstequilibriumpoint,itispossibletofindbifurcationpointsanalyticallyandtoprovethatthesystemhasperiodicsolutionsaroundthesepoints.Furthermorethedynamicalbehavioursofthismodelareinvestigated.Thedynamicalbehaviourisfoundtobeverysensitivetoparametervaluesaswellastheparametersofthepracticallife.Computersimulationsarecarriedouttoexplaintheanalyticalfindings.KEYWORDS:food-chainmodel,Hopfbifurcation,modifiedLotka-Volterramodel,modifiedMichaelis-Menten-typefunctionalresponse
Introduction
Therealinteractionofprey-predatorinnatureiscomplexandcomprisesbothinterspeciesandexternalenvironmentalfactors.Therefore,severalsimplificationsareusuallyassumedsothatabasicmodelcanbeconstructedandthendevelopedormodifiedtoapproachtherealsystem.Oneofthesimplestdynamicalmodelstodescribetheinteractionbetweentwointeractingspecies,namelyonepreyandonepredator,istheclassicalLotka-Volterraequation(Chauvet
etal.,
2002)whichcanbestatedas
dx=a,x-bjxy)
dt
dy
-=
-a,y
+
b.xy
dt
where
x
isaprey,
y
isapredator,thepredator
y
preyson
x,
a1isthepreygrowthrateintheabsenceofthepredators,
b
I
isthecapturerateofpreybyperpredator,
b
2
istherateatwhicheach
Received:
31
January2011/Accepted:
22
June2011
(1)predatorconvertscapturedpreyintopredatorbirthsand
a
2
istheconstantrateatwhichdeathoccursintheabsenceofprey.Theyshowedthatditrophicfoodchains(i.e.prey-predatorsystems)permanentlyoscillateforanyinitialconditionifthepreygrowthrateisconstantandthepredatorfunctionalresponseislinear.Theterm"ratio-dependentpredation"isintroducedinArditiandGinzburg,(1989)todescribesituationsinwhichthefeedingratesofpredatorsdependontheratioofthenumberofpreystothenumberofpredatorsratherthanonpreydensityalone,asisthecaseinmostclassicalmodels.Oneadvantageoftheratiodependenceisthattheypreventparadoxesofenrichmentandbiologicalcontrolpredictedbyclassicalmodels(ArditiandSaiah,1992;GakkarandNaji,2003).Experimentalobservations(GinzburgandAkcakaya,1992)suggestthatprey-dependentmodelsareappropriateinhomogeneoussituationsandratio-dependentmodelsaregoodinheterogeneouscases.Manyinvestigators(GinzburgandAkcakaya,1992;McCarthy
etal.,
1995)havealsoconcludedthatnaturalsystems
 
Mamat,Metal.
areclosertothemodelswithratiodependencethantotheoneswithprey-densitydependence(Jost
etal.,1999).
Almosteachofthefood-chainmodelsconsideredinecologicalliteratureareconstructedbyinvokingsametypeoffunctionalresponsesfor
(x,
y)
and
(y,
z)
populations(Mamat
etaI.,
2011).Butadifferentselectionoffunctionalresponsewouldbeperhapsmorerealisticinthiscontext.In2011,amathematicalmodelofthreespeciesmodelbymixedLotka-VolterraandHollingType-IIfunctionalresponsewasproposed(MadaSanjaya
etal.,
2011).
Fromthispointofview,inthispaper,aclassical(nonlogistic)Lotka-Volterrafunctionalresponseforthespecies
x
and
y
andaMichaelis-Mententypefunctionalresponseforthespecies
y
and
z
isconsidered(KaraandCan,2006;Hsu
etaI.,
2001;Hsu
etal.,
2003;Abrams,1994;AbramsandGinzburg,2000;BerettaandKuang,1998).ModelSystemTheclassicalfood-chainmodelswithonlytwotrophiclevelsareshowntobeinsufficienttoproducerealisticdynamics(FreedmanandWaltman,1977;HastingsandPowell,1991;HastingsandKlebanoff,1993;DubeyandUpadhyay,2004;MadaSanjaya
etal.,
2011).
Therefore,inthispaper,bymodifyingandcomposingtheclassicalLotka-VolterraandMichaelis-Mententypefunctionalresponsemodelthedynamicsofathree-speciesfood-chaininteractionareanalysedandsimulated.Withnon-dimensionalisation,thesystemofthree-speciesfoodchaincanbewrittenas
dx
=
(a[-
b[y}r
dt
d:
=
(-a
2
+b
2
x-
yC~z)y
dz
=(_
a
3
+
c
2
y
)z
dty+z
where
x,
y,
and
z
denotedthenon-dimensionalpopulationdensityoftheprey,predator,andtoppredatorrespectively.Thepredator
y
preyson
x
andthetoppredator
z
preyson
y.
Furthermore
al'az'a
3
b
l'
b
z'
cl'and
C
z
arepreyintrinsic
J.
Sustain.
Sci.
Manage.Volume
6(2)
2011:215-223
216
growthrate,predator'sdeathrates,toppredatorsdeathrates,predationrateofthepredator,theconversionrate,themaximalgrowthrateofthepredator,andconversion-factorconstantrespectively.EquilibriumPointAnalysisAccordingtoGinoux(2009),May(2001),MadaSanjaya
etal.
(2011)andMamat
etal.
(2011),theequilibriumpointsof(2)denotedby
E(,',y,z),
arethezerosofitsnonlinearalgebraicsystemwhichcanbewrittenas(3)Byconsideringthepositivityoftheparametersandtheunknowns,therearetwopositiveequilibriumgivenby
EI(xI'YJ'0)
with
Xl
=
a/
b
2,
and
y,
=
a/
b,'
and
E
z
(X2'Y2,z)
with
a)c[-a
2
c
2-C[C2
a
1
(a)-c
2)
X2
=,
Y2
=
a[
I
hi'and
Z3
=
~~~~
whereStabilityofEquilibriumPointsThedynamicalbehaviourofequilibriumpointsisstudiedbycomputingtheeigenvaluesoftheJacobianmatrix
J
ofsystem(2)where
a
J-bJy-bJx
0
(2)
-2-2
J(x,y,z)
=
b
2
y
_c
1
z
CJY
-a
2
+b2
x-
(Y+zY-(Y+Z)2
(4)
-2-2
0
c
2
z
C
2
Y(Y+Z)2
-a
+--
J
(Y+Z)2
Atmost,thereexiststwopositiveequilibriumpointsforsystem(2).Theexistenceandlocalstabilityconditionsoftheseequilibriumpointsareasfollows.
 
THEDYNAMICSOFATHREE-SPECIESFOODCHAININTERACTIONMODEL217
1.
TheJacobianmatrix(4)attheequilibriumThecharacteristicequationoftheJacobianmatrixpointE,
(xl'YJ'0)'
is(4)of
E2
(X2
,y
2
,z)
is
A
3
+
ITI
A.2+
IT}
+
IT3=
0where
0
b,a
2
0
b
2
J(Xj,
y,
,0)
=
b
2
a,
0
-c,
(5)
b,
00
-a
3
+
C2
TheeigenvaluesoftheJacobianmatrix(5)are
A
I,2=
±J-
{!,C!L,
and
A3
=
c
2-
a
3
Hence,theequilibriumpoint
EI
isalocally-stablespiralsinkif
c
2
<
a
3
and
EI
isalocally-unstablespiralsourceif
c
2
>
a
3
2.SupposethattheJacobianmatrix(4)isdenotedby
J
=
(aij)3x3'
Bysubstitution
E2
(x2'
y
2
,z)
into(4),wehave
all
=
0,
b,
(clal-
a
2
c
2-
CIC2)
a
l2
=,
b
2
c
2
a
l2
=
0,
a
l
b
2
a
21
=:
I
and
J.
Sustain.Sci.Manage.Volume
6(2)
2011:215-223
AccordingtotheRouth-Hurwitzcriterion(Ginoux,2009;May,2001;MadaSanjaya
etal.,
2011;Mamat
etal.,
2011),
E2
(X2
,y
2
,z)
islocallyandasymptoticallystableifonesets
ITI
>
0,
IT3
>
0,and
ITIIT2
>
IT3'
(7)
then
HopfBifurcationPoint
Whenattemptingtostudyperiodicorquasi-periodicbehaviourofadynamicalsystem,theHopfbifurcationpointneedstobeconsidered.Thedynamicalsystemgenerally(Ginoux,2009;May,2001;KaraandCan,2006;MadaSanjaya
etal.,
2011)canbewrittenas
v
=
F(v,/.l)
(9)wherev
=
(x,
y,
z),
=
(aI'a
2,
a
3,
s;
b
2,
cl'
c
2)
(10)AccordingtoGinoux(2009),May(2001),andKaraandCan(2006)forthesystem(2)whichcanbewritten
in
theform(9-10),ifanorderedpair(v
0'
flo)
satisfiedtheconditions
(1)F(vo,flo)=O,(2)J(V,f1)
hastwocomplexconjugateeigenvalues
Al
2=
a(v,f1)
±
ib(v,f1),
around(v
0'
flo):(3)a(vo'flo)
=
0,
Va(vo'flo)
:;i:
0,
b(vo'flO>
:;i:
0,and(4)Thethirdeigenvalues
A
3
(V
O'
flO>:;i:0,
then(v
o'
flo)
iscalledaHopfbifurcationpoint.Forthesystem(2),twoequilibriumpoints
EI(Xl'yl,O)
and
E2
(X2,y2
,z),
satisfythecondition,andfortheequilibriumpoint
EI(Xl'yl,O),
thereare

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->