Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
P. 1
European Greece or Greek Europe

European Greece or Greek Europe

Ratings: (0)|Views: 386|Likes:
Published by EKAI Center

More info:

Published by: EKAI Center on Jul 07, 2012
Copyright:Public Domain

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/07/2012

pdf

 
L|qdulko Mqllgl dq Mqll`L|qdul4
L|qdulko nww|lw
oµ133;>
sh
J|ol 15;1
Kikno BKAQL
Lgdodfnws) A|wnolww Bnokognki Kcrnwdq
UDING^UKULQ
BDOCKSNDO QDALQS WGH\FKO $ L\QDULKO NWW\LW Oµ133 $ ;>
SH
J\OL 15;1L|qdulko udingnlw
Ns nw nffdqki sd inl sd dshlqw a|s ns nw sqkmng nb ~d| inl sd ~d|qwlib/ Shnw nw shl clkc loc shks shlMqll`w hkrl bd|oc shlfwlirlw sqkuulc no kocd|s db }hngh shl~ gkoods qlkii~ lwgkul |oilwwshl~ qls|qo sd qlkins~ a~ kww|fnom shlnq qlwudown&aninsnlw/ L|qdul hkw koc }nii cd kii ns gko sd hliuMqllgl d|s db shl uns) a|s ns gkoods al fkcl nosdk wgkulmdks odq uk~ d|s locilwwi~/ Shl k|wslqns~g|ql shks Mqllgl nw nfuilflosnom nw shl qlw|is db shl wns|ksndo }hngh shl Mqll`w koc shl udinsngkigikww hkrl `od}nomi~ kiid}lc sd dgg|q/ Odol db shl nowsns|sndow no Aq|wwliw dq Bqko`b|qs bdqglcshl ;;5, nogqlkwl do Mqll` gnrni wlqrkosw„ uk~als}llo 1555 koc 15;5 }hniws Bqkogl) }hnghnw ods qlkii~ w|ajlgs sd }kml k|wslqns~) doi~mqkoslc k 75, nogqlkwl sd nsw d}o gnrni wlqrngldrlq shl wkfl ulqndc/ Do shl gdosqkq~) shl bkgsshks Mqll` noslqlws qkslw qlfknolc ks k qlc|glcilrli |osni shl loc db 155> whd|ic hkrl lokailc)kw ukqs db k qlwudownail uding~) shl clrliduflosdb k uqdc|gsnrl lgdodf~ koc shl gdfuilsndo db shl olglwwkq~ qlbdqfw/ Mqllgl ‗ koc ns nw odsshl doi~ dol ‗wnogl Bqkogl) Nski~ koc Wukno hkrllkgh bdiid}lc wnfnikq ukshw ‗ uqlblqqlc sd sk`lkcrkoskml db bqll gdiilgsnrl udwwnaninsnlw }hnghshl wnomil g|qqlog~ qluqlwlosw) a~ cnwsqna|snommlolqkinwlc koo|nsnlw sd shl alolbns db k ginlosl&inws udinsngki gikww/Kbslq shl gdob|wlc rdsl db 2sh Fk~ ikws shlMqll` lilgsdqksl) }nsh shl wlgdoc mlolqki lilg&sndo dqmkonwlc do ;=sh J|ol od} wllflc sdhkrl dulolc shl }k~ bdq k gdkinsndo mdrlqoflos}nsh Ol} Clfdgqkg~ ilc a~ Kosdonw Wkfkqkw)shks }nii lwskainwh Mqllgl no shl l|qd zdol) ks
Kawsqkgs
Shl qlw|isw db shl Mqll` mlolqki lilgsndo db ;=sh J|ol kuukqlosi~ dulo |u k udinsngki uksh sd Mqllglqlfknonom no shl l|qd zdol) }nsh shl nfuilflosksndo db shl Flfdqkoc|f (k uqdmqkffl sd qlbdqfkoc qlc|gl clbngnsw) kw wnmolc a~ Mqllgl no lxghkoml bdq L|qdulko knc./ No ko~ gkwl shl fknosl&okogl db shl l|qd a~ Mqllgl clulocw ilww do shl L\) }hngh hkw clfdowsqkslc nsw wdinckqns~ }nsh kwlqnlw db knc uqdmqkfflw wnogl 15;5 sdskiinom 735 aniindo ₩) shko do nsw kanins~ sd qls|qo sd qlkins~ koc sd qnwl sd shl ghkiiloml db gdfulsnsnrlolww/ Lrlo shd|mh shl qls|qo sd shl cqkghfk nw od} k}konom uqdwulgs shl Mqll`w uqdakai~ loclc a~ alinlrnom shks shnw }d|ic hkrl ilc sd k bnokognki koc ako`nom cnwkwslq koc kiwd sd lgdodfng q|no/ Fdqldrlq ns }d|ic al rkno sd alinlrl shks shl kgsnrksndoclrki|ksndo }d|ic ods md hkoc no hkoc }nsh k|wslqns~ flkw|qlw) shks }d|ic al j|ws kw cqkgdonko kwshdwl ’wls‖ a~ L|qdul) }nsh shl wdinckqns~ db nsw olnmhad|qw alnom qlc|glc sd k f|gh id}lq ilrli) nb ods cnwkuulkqnom gdfuilsli~/ Shl Mqll` wns|ksndo qlrlkiw shks }l hkrl sd whlc kii nii|wndow kad|s shl gqlksndo db bngsnsnd|w }lkish rnk shl cnwsqna|sndo db mlolqkinwlc koo|nsnlw ks shl wlqrngl db udinsngki ginloslinwf/ Ns nw olglwwkq~ sd a|nic qlki mqd}sh do k gdfulsnsnrl akwl/ Shnw cnkmodwnw nw rkinc bdq shl;= l|qd zdol flfalqw/ Shl ckomlqw gdflw ilww bqdf Mqllgl shko bqdf shl kanins~ db shl ’anm‖ Wskslwsd nfuilflos shl olglwwkq~ qlbdqfw sd ql&lwskainwh k gdfulsnsnrl lgdodf~/ Shl gdic }krl shks hkwhns Bqkogd&Mlqfko qliksndow j|ws kw Mqllgl wllfw sd al kad|s sd akonwh shl wulgsql shks shqlkslolc shl l|qd zdol nw k f|gh fdql wlqnd|w shqlks idom slqf/ L|qdul bnocw nswlib cluqnrlc db dol db shl fdws lbblgsnrl flkow sd wdirl nsw gqnwlw koc sd a|nic shl rnski wskmlw do shl uksh sd udinsngki noslmqksndo) shlakwng gdocnsndo sd wlssil shl gqnwnw koc sd nogqlkwl mqd}sh/ ]l fnmhs hdul shks shl loc db shl Bqloghlilgsdqki wlkwdo }nii ilkc sd gdorlqmlogl do shl ukqs db shl s}d fkno Wskslw no shl l|qd zdol sd}kqcwmqlkslq udinsngki koc a|cmlskq~ noslmqksndo koc kiwd sd k mqd}sh wsqkslm~/ Dshlq}nwl shl ckomlqwdb udinsngki nfudslogl kggdqcnom sd shl fdcli db shl kognlos Mqll` gnsnlw gd|ic |oclqfnol uqdmqlwwsd}kqcw L|qdulko udinsngki noslmqksndo/
 
BDOCKSNDO QDALQS WGH\FKO $ L\QDULKO NWW\LW Oµ133 $ ;>
SH
J\OL 15;1
51
L|qdulko Mqllgl dq Mqll` L|qdul4
L|qdulko udingnlw
shl uqngl db wkgqnbnglw wls a~ shl L|qdulko Flfdqko&c|f) shl qlbdqf uqdmqkffl kcduslc no lxghkoml bdqL|qdul„w bnokognki knc/ Shl lilgsndo do ;=sh J|ol ‗ k`noc db qlblqloc|f do shl fknoslokogl db shl l|qd kocshl udinsngki gdhlqlogl shks mdlw }nsh ns) nw kadrl kiikad|s udinsngki kggluskogl do shl ukqs db shl Mqll`w sdgdosno|l }nsh shlnq cdflwsng qlbdqfw sdmlshlq }nsh shlgdosno|lc w|uudqs db L|qdul/
L|qdulko Wdinckqns~) Mqll` Oksndoki Qlwudownanis~ 
Kggdqcnom sd shl Mdwuli db Jdho) nb i~nom nfuqnwdow shloshl sq|sh wlsw ~d| bqll/ Shnw nw shl uksh shks Mqllglhkw od} lfakq`lc |udo sd qla|nic nsw wdgnls~ koc nswlgdodf~/ Bnqwsi~ algk|wl ns }nii bnoc nswlib do gd|qwlbdq k }noonom mqd}sh wsqkslm~) koc shlo algk|wl ns }niiwsqlomshlo nsw lwskainwhflos no shl L|qdulko \ondo/Shl gdob|wndo shks bdiid}lc shl mlolqki lilgsndow do2sh Fk~ ‗ }hngh ilc sd shl ollc bdq k b|qshlq lilgsndodo ;=sh J|ol) f|ws bnokii~ al akonwhlc: ns nw nfudwwnailsd }kos sd `llu shl l|qd) kw cd 85, db shl Mqll`w)nogi|cnom Kilxnw Swnuqkw„ qkcngki ilbs) alolbns bqdf w|ghfkwwnrl kfd|osw db knc kw shks uqdrnclc a~ L|qdul ‗}hngh sdskiw kqd|oc 735 aniindo ₩) nl l{|ki sd kii db shlkfd|os db shl clas albdql shl gqnwnw dq 75)555 ₩ ulqulqwdo ‗ koc kiwd udwsudol qlbdqfw sd ikslq dq doi~kgglus w|ulqbngnki flkw|qlw/ Od dol gko uqlsloc shksshlwl qlbdqfw }nii al uknob|i) koc shks shl~ }nii aqnomsd shl bdql k bllinom db cnwnii|wndoflos kad|s k bngsn&snd|w qlkins~ }hngh shl losnql gd|osq~ koc shl udinsngkigikww hkw loslqsknolc bdq wd idom/ A|s shl Mqll` md&rlqoflos koc shl udu|iksndo gkoods sd }kos sd gd|osdo shl noclbnonsl wdinckqns~ db shl gnsnzlow db Hkfa|qm)Fniko koc Sd|id|wl koc ~ls qlb|wl sd kmqll sd shlwkgqnbnglw) }hngh kql kw qlki kw shl b|ocw kql olglw&wkq~ sd uqlrlos shl clbk|is db adsh shl ako`w koc shlWsksl/ Shl l|qd zdol gkoods kgglus shks Mqllgl) kw nsww}lqrlw sd lxsqlflw) whd|ic sk`l shl losnql l|qd zdolhdwskml: ’
~d| hkrl sd wkrl |w }hkslrlq hkuulow sd uqlrlos shl gdoskmndo db Wukno Nski~) bqdf olnmhad|q sd olnmhad|q koc db kii db shl Flfalq Wskslw/
‖ Shlfkjdq gd|osqnlw no shl l|qd zdol kiqlkc~ `od} shksshl~ }nii al kw`lc sd uqdrncl k mqlks clki db bnokognkinou|s bdq Mqllgl sd wsk~ no shl l|qd zdol dq sd loc a~ilkrnom ns) }hngh nw od} hnmhi~ |oin`li~: ’aikg`fkni‖ }nii ilkc sd k clkc loc) lrlo nb shl Flfdqkoc|f nwghkiilomlc no wlrlqki ~lkqw snfl/ Shnw nw algk|wl shl;= l|qd kqlk Wskslw }nii ki}k~w al kail sd dus sd kncshl Mqll` ako`w shks kql no ckomlq cnqlgsi~ qkshlqshko knc Mqllgl noclbnonsli~ kw ns qlb|wlw dq hkw ql&b|wlc sd gddulqksl a~ |oclqsk`nom cdflwsng qlbdqf nolxghkoml bdq L|qdulko wdinckqns~/Hlogl Mqllgl hkw sd al k}kql shks kadrl kii) nsw idomslqf b|s|ql no shl l|qd kqlk clulocw do ns kidol/ Uql&slocnom no dol }k~ dq kodshlq shks shl Flfdqkoc|fgko al qljlgslc dq shks fksslqw gko al infnslc j|ws sdw|ulqbngnki qlbdqfw koc ~ls kiwd gd|os do L|qdulko knc)kw W~qnzk (shl bkq ilbs ukqs~ shks gkfl wlgdoc no shllilgsndo do ;=sh J|ol. fknosknolc c|qnom nsw lilgsdqkigkfuknmo dq hdul sd qlolmdsnksl ns fdql shko bqdf kslghongki udnos db rnl}) kw }kw uilkclc bdq wdflsnflwa~ Fq Wkfkqkw„ Ol} Clfdgqkg~) flkow sk`nom shlqnw`) al~doc lilgsdqki qhlsdqng) db ulquls|ksnom nii|&wndow koc shl ckomlq db b|qshlq uknob|i w|quqnwlw/ Kg&gdqcnom sd ko kqsngil uqnoslc no
Shl Lgdodfnws 
no Kuqni)shl ikslws lilgsdqki qlw|isw hkrl whd}o) adsh no Bqkoglkoc Mqllgl) }hks clo~nom qlkins~ gko gdws/ Dol db shlgilkqlws flwwkmlw db shl gqnwnw wnogl 1558&155> hkwallo shl clgnwnrl qdil uik~lc a~ oksndoki clfdgqksnginbl no shl uqlukqksndo db dunondo }nsh qlmkqc sd qlkins~/No bkgs shl ghdngl db qlkins~) n/l/ db qlbdqf) nw uqdakai~shl wkblws flkow sd gdornogl shl fkjdq l|qd zdolgd|osqnlw sd ql&dqmkonwl shl gkilockq koc shl fdckin&snlw db shl qlbdqf uqdmqkffl) kw nosnfkslc a~ M|ncd]lwslq}liil) shl Mlqfko Bdqlnmo Fnonwslq) kbslq shlqlilkwl db shl Mqll` lilgsdqki qlw|isw/ Kggluskogl kockadrl kii shl hdolws nfuilflosksndo db shl qlwdqusndodb u|aing clbngnsw fnmhs kiwd al |oclqsk`lo sdmlshlq}nsh L|qdulko kgsndo ilrlqw sd bdwslq shl gdfulsnsn&rlolww db shl lgdodf~: cnqlgs u|aing dq uqnrksl no&rlwsflosw) uqdmqkfflw w|uudqslc a~ shl wsq|gs|qkib|ocw dq shl L|qdulko Norlwsflos Ako` (LNA.) lsg/ Kwsqkslm~ in`l shnw }d|ic nogncloskii~ al gdfuilsli~ noinol }nsh shl lgdodfng idmng sd sqkowblq wkrnomw drlqsd k a|cmlskq~ blclqksndo shks nw od} alnom gqlkslc/Shl Mqll`w) wskqsnom }nsh shl udinsngki gikwwlw) f|wsbnokii~ |oclqwskoc shks shl uqlwlos wkgqnbnglw kql kqlw|is db shl wns|ksndo shl~ uikglc shlfwlirlw no kocods L|qdul/ Shl~ kql sk`nom ukqs no k gdowdincksndoshks nw ino`lc sd k mqd}sh wsqkslm~ koc ods sd u|onwh&flos nobingslc a~ shl Mdcw db Rkihkiik do shdwl db shlDi~fu|w Fd|os/
 
57
;>
SH
J\OL 15;1 $ L\QDULKO NWW\LW Oµ133 $ BDOCKSNDO QDALQS WGH\FKO
L|qdulko Mqllgl dq Mqll` L|qdul4
L|qdulko udingnlw
 Koc nb no wunsl db shnw Mqllgl ////4 
No shlwl gdocnsndow shl clgikqksndow fkcl a~ shl L|qd&ulko ilkclqw no w|uudqs db Mqllgl„w fknoslokogl no shll|qd zdol) koc lrlo gkiiw do shl lrl db shl lilgsndo do;=sh J|ol) in`l shks fkcl a~ shl Bqlogh Uqlwnclos sdshl Mqll` lilgsdqksl) kql j|ws kw f|gh k clfdowsqksndodb bknsh kw shl~ kql k qlrlqwki db shl a|qclo db uqddb/Shl l|qd zdol Wskslw gd|ic ods hkrl uqlrloslc Mqllgl{|nssnom shl l|qd zdol nb nsw ilkclqw hkc clgnclc no dol}k~ dq kodshlq sd gnqg|frlos shl dainmksndow db shl L|&qdulko Flfdqkoc|f kbslq shl lilgsndo do ;=sh J|ol/No shnw qlmkqc) kw no fko~ dshlqw) ns nw olrlq glqsknoshks shl }dqws }nii hkuulo) lwulgnkii~ nb fksslqw kqlslghongkii~ gdosqdiikail/ Ns hkw dbslo allo wknc shksMqllgl) gdfuqnwnom akqli~ 1, db shl l|qd zdol„w MCU)}kw k uqdailf shks shl Flfalq Wskslw gd|ic gdul}nsh0 }l fnmhs wk~) lrlo shd|mh shnw wglokqnd wllfwsd al }konom) shks Mqllgl„w lxns) kbslq ko lxuingns dq nf&uingns qljlgsndo db shl L|qdulko Flfdqkoc|f) }nshd|snmodqnom shl cnwq|usndo shnw }d|ic gk|wl ‗ }d|ic wsniial fkokmlkail a~ shl l|qd zdol/ Shl fkno ckomlqwshqlkslo shl ako`nom w~wslfw }hngh hdic fdws db shlMqll` u|aing clas/ L|qdulko ako`w gkqq~ 85 aniindo ₩ noslqfw db shl shqlks kmknows Mqllgl) 35 aniindo db }hnghkql no Bqkogl) }hngh nw wsnii alkqkail/Fdqldrlq nb Mqllgl {|ns shl l|qd shnw }d|ic ods k|sd&fksngkii~ nfui~ Mqllgl ilkrnom shl L|qdulko \ondo/ Nsnw hkqc sd wll }h~/ Lrlo shd|mh shl slxsw fnmhs ilocshlfwlirlw sd shnw noslquqlsksndo) }l }d|ic al kail sdgd|os do ko dqclqi~ udinsngki qlwudowl L|qdul }ncl:bqdf k fdolskq~ udnos db rnl} shl udwwnail qls|qo sdshl cqkghfk fnmhs md sdmlshlq }nsh ko nfflcnksl dq|islqndq dqclqi~ bi|gs|ksndo ‗ kggdqcnom sd shl L|qdulkofdolskq~ w~wslf ‗ no qliksndo sd shl l|qd/ Bqdf k ako&`nom koc bnokognki udnos db rnl}) shl ql&nosqdc|gsndo db k oksndoki g|qqlog~) }hngh idmngkii~ }d|ic al mqlksi~clrki|lc kmknows shl l|qd ‗ k qksl db <5, }d|ic al{|nsl udwwnail ‗ }d|ic nogqlkwl shl lxnwsnom clas a~ kl{|nrkilos qksl koc kwwlsw }d|ic cluqlgnksl gdqqlwudo&cnomi~) }hngh }d|ic shlo ilkc sd k wnmonbngkos cluqlw&wndo do shl qlki lgdodf~ koc }d|ic ilkc) kii shnomwalnom l{|ki liwl}hlql) sd clbk|is/No wunsl db shnw shl loc db shl l|qd no Mqllgl }d|icno od }k~ olglwwkqni~ flko shl loc db wdinckqns~ noL|qdul: ns nw in`li~ shks whdqs slqf w|uudqs flkw|qlwsd shl Mqll` ako`nom w~wslf }d|ic al nfuilfloslc sduqlrlos gdiikuwl koc shl wskqs db k ’Wd|sh Kflqngko‖ wunqki/ ]l fnmhs kiwd nfkmnol shks lrlo nb ns nw slgh&ongkii~ kmknows L|qdulko q|ilw) shl Mqll` k|shdqnsnlwfnmhs clgncl sd sk`l slfudqkq~ flkw|qlw sd gdosqdilxghkoml qkslw/ Bnokii~)) gdosqkq~ sd }hks nw fknoskn&olc a~ kii db shdwl }hd qkshlq binuukosi~ ik|c lxuko&wndonws udingnlw koc clrki|ksndo }hngh nw w|uudwlc sdbqll shlf bqdf k|wslqns~ koc ql&nosqdc|gl mqd}sh a~fkmng) k qls|qo sd shl cqkghfk sdmlshlq }nsh nsw wnmon&bngkos cluqlgnksndo no gdfukqnwdo }nsh shl l|qd }d|icods aqnom kad|s shl alolbnsw ns nw wknc ns }d|ic aqnom)lxglus nb shlql }lql sd al ko lxsqlfli~ wsqngs k|wslqns~uqdmqkffl/ ]nsh shl cqkghfk dq shl l|qd shl Mqll`wkql gdoclfolc sd kcdusnom cqkgdonko k|wslqns~ flk&w|qlw albdql alolbnsnom bqdf shl lbblgsw db shl clrk&i|ksndo db shlnq oksndoki g|qqlog~/ K|wslqns~ flkw|qlwcd ods j|ws gdoglqo u|aing wulocnom) shl~ kiwd gdrlquqnglw koc wkikqnlw/ In`l}nwl ns }d|ic al ko nii|wndo sdhdul sd alolbns bqdf shl kcrkoskmlw db clrki|ksndokoc kiwd qlskno ko nobilxnail ikad|q fkq`ls/ Fk~al ns}kw shl w|cclo k}kqlolww shks k ’oksndoki‖ wdi|sndo)fnmhs uqdrl sd al }dqwl bdq shl Mqll` lgdodf~ shkoshl ansslq udsndow kcfnonwslqlc a~ shl NFB&LGA&Gdf&fnwwndo ’Sqdn`k‖ shks dulolc shl uksh sd qlkwdo do shlukqs db shl Mqll` lilgsdqksl/]hks shl Mqll` uqdailf koc dshlq wnfnikq wns|ksndowslii |w nw shks shlql gko al od wsqdom idom slqf mqd}shshks }nii ilkc sd shl gqlksndo db jdaw }nshd|s bnoko&gnki gdowdincksndo sdmlshlq }nsh k uding~ sd ql&lwskainwhgdocnsndow bdq k gdfulsnsnrl lgdodf~/ Shl doi~ lxglusndoshks gdobnqfw shl q|il nw) nogncloskii~ shl \WK) }hngh gkogdosno|l }nsh shnw kifdws noclbnonsli~ c|l sd nsw gkukgns~ sdnww|l ko noslqoksndoki g|qqlog~ koc dbblq shl alws gdocn&sndow bdq }dqic wkrnom shko`w sd shl clush db nsw bnoko&gnki fkq`ls/ Fdqldrlq shl \WK hkw k f|gh fdql bilxnailikad|q fkq`ls shko no L|qdul/ Kflqngko ilkclqw hkrlkiwd udnoslc sd shl infnsw db shl mqd}sh fdcli bdg|wlcdo gdow|fusndo koc shl w|uudqs db shnw rnk wulg|iksnrla|aailw/ No shl gkwl db shl L|qdulko gd|osqnlw ns nw rknosd }kos sd gdu~ shl Kflqngko fdcli lwulgnkii~ wnogl shlgdocnsndow bdq ko dusnfki fdolskq~ zdol ‗ uqngl) wkikq~koc ikad|q fkq`ls bilxnanins~) hkrl ods allo fls/ Kw }lwll lrlq~}hlql do shl dic gdosnolos) cdflwsng lbbdqsw now|uudqs db gdfulsnsnrlolww kql olglwwkq~ adsh bdq shll|qd zdol flfalqw koc shl dshlq flfalqw db shl L\}hd hkrl ods kcduslc shl wnomil g|qqlog~/

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->