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Corrosion

Corrosion

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Published by Shuvanjan Dahal

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Published by: Shuvanjan Dahal on Jul 07, 2012
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Corrosion
Any process of deterioration (or destruction) and consequent loss of a solid metallic material, through anunwanted (or unintentional) chemical or electrochemical attack by its environment, starting at its surface iscalled “corrosion”.
Cause of Corrosion:
Most metals exist in nature in their combined form. They are reduced to metallic states from their ores,during their extraction processes. Since considerable amount of energy is required during extraction, theisolated pure metals can be regarded in excited state (a higher energy state) than their corresponding ores,and they have a natural tendency to revert back to combined state (or low energy state). Hence, when metalsare exposed to environment, they begin to decay more or less rapidly.Examples: a. rusting of ironb. formation of green film of basic carbonate [CuCO
3
+ Cu(OH)
2
] on the surface of copper
Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion (Rusting of Iron)
Electrochemical Corrosion involves:a.
 
The formation of anodic or cathodic areas in contact with each otherb.
 
Presence of a conducting mediumc.
 
Corrosion of anodic areas onlyd.
 
Formation of corrosion product somewhere between anodic and cathodic areasFor rusting of iron, we have to consider the following three electrodes:a.
 
Fe
++
+ 2e
-
 
Fe E
= -0.44 Vb.
 
2H
2
O + 2e
-
 
H
2
+ 2OH
-
E
= -0.42 at pH=7c.
 
O
2
+2H
2
O + 4e
-
 
4OH
-
E
= +0.40V
Combination of electrodes a and b:
a=anode, b=cathodeRate of reaction is less since reduction reaction potentials are nearly equal.
Combination of electrodes a and c:
The rate of redox reaction is very fast.
 
Hence, oxygen in the presence of w
Dry or Chemical Corrosion
It occurs due to direct chemical actinitrogen, etc. with metal surfaces in
Electrochemical Coi.
It takes place under wet condof aqueous solution, or electro
ii.
It takes place through the forof galvanic cells.
iii.
Corrosion products accumuwhereas corrosion occurs at a 
Other types of Corrosion
ter can easily oxidize iron.n of environment/atmospheric gases such as oximmediate proximity.
r
 
rosion Chemical
itions – presencelyte.i. It takes place in dry coation of a series ii. It takes place by dienvironment on metalslate at cathodeode.iii. Corrosion products aspot where corrosion hgen, halogen, H
2
S, SO
2
,
C
 
orrosion
nditions.ect chemical attack of .ccumulate at the sameas occurred.
 
1.
 
Galvanic (or Bimeta
When two dissimilar metals (e.g. zithe metal higher in electrochemicacorrosion. Here, zinc forms the anodThe use of pipelines in conjunctiogalvanic corrosion.
2.
 
Crevice/Contact Co
Contact corrosion is produced at thdifferent metallic objects such asliquids, they become anodic regionsurface acts as cathode.
3.
 
Pitting Corrosion
It is a localized corrosion, resultingthe protective film on metal surfaceanodic region and large cathodic re
4.
 
Intergranular Corro
This type of corrosion is due to tpotential more anodic than that of corrosion. E.g. during welding of boundaries, thereby, making the reg
lic Corrosion)
nc and copper) are electrically connected and el series undergoes corrosion. This type of corre and is attacked and gets dissolved whereas copn
 
with iron popes in water distribution system
rosion
e region of contact of metals with metals or nobolts, rivets, nuts, etc. When these crevices cwhere corrosion occurs due to restricted supplyin the formation of pits. Pitting usually takes pla. An anode is formed where the film has brokenion results in severe anodic corrosion.
sion
he fact that grain boundaries contain material,the grain centre. Alloys are generally more susstainless steel (Fe, C, Cr), chromium carbideions adjacent to grain boundaries more anodic.posed to an electrolyte,osion is called galvanicper acts as cathode.has been the cause of -metals e.g. crevices of me in contact with theof oxygen. The exposede due to the cracking of . The formation of smallwhich shows electrodeeptible to Intergranularis precipitated at grain

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