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Electric Power Engineering Handbook - 08 - Power System Analysis and Simulation

Electric Power Engineering Handbook - 08 - Power System Analysis and Simulation

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05/19/2013

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Grigsby, L.L.
Power System Analysis and Simulation
The Electric Power Engineering Handbook
Ed.
L.L. Grigsby
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,
2001

8
Power System Analysisand Simulation
L.L. Grigsby
Auburn University
Andrew Hanson
ABB Power T&D Company

8
Power System Analysisand Simulation
Impact on TransformersPer-Unit Scaling Extended toThree-Phase SystemsPer-Unit Scaling Extended to a GeneralThree-Phase System
Fundamental DeﬁnitionsReduction to the BalancedCaseSequence Network Representation in Per-UnitPowerTransformers
The Power Flow ProblemFormulation of the BusAdmittance MatrixFormulation of the Power FlowEquationsBus ClassiﬁcationsGeneralized Power FlowDevelopmentSolution MethodsComponent PowerFlows
Simpliﬁcations in the System ModelThe Four Basic FaultTypesAn Example Fault StudyFurther ConsiderationsSummary
8.1The Per-Unit System
Charles A. Gross
In many engineering situations, it is useful to scale or normalize quantities. This is commonly done inpower system analysis, and the standard method used is referred to as the per-unit system. Historically,this was done to simplify numerical calculations that were made by hand. Although this advantage hasbeen eliminated by using the computer, other advantages remain:Device parameters tend to fall into a relatively narrow range, making erroneous values conspicuous.The method is deﬁned in order to eliminate ideal transformers as circuit components.The voltage throughout the power system is normally close to unity.Some disadvantages are that component equivalent circuits are somewhat more abstract. Sometimesphase shifts that are clearly present in the unscaled circuit are eliminated in the per-unit circuit.It is necessary for power system engineers to become familiar with the system because of its wideindustrial acceptance and use and also to take advantage of its analytical simpliﬁcations. This discussionis limited to traditional AC analysis, with voltages and currents represented as complex phasor values.Per-unit is sometimes extended to transient analysis and may include quantities other than voltage, power,current, and impedance.
Charles A. Gross
Auburn University
University of Alabama
L. L. Grigsby
Auburn University
Andrew Hanson
ABB Power T&D Company