Turkey and the Horn of Africa: Emerging Interests and Relations
Chatham House, London28 June 2012David H. ShinnTurkey has embassies in Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia but none in Eritreaand Djibouti.
trade with the Horn of Africa is not significant. In 2010, it had modestimports from the region, the largest amount being $41 million in value from Ethiopia. Its onlyexports to the region that year of any significance were $228 million to Sudan and $175 millionto Ethiopia. Turke
y’s engagement in the Horn of Africa is generally more advanced than in most
of the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa because it is geographically close to Turkey and all of thecountries except South Sudan are predominantly Muslim or have large Muslim minorities.
east important relationship is with Eritrea. It has an honorary consulate inAsmara;
Turkey’s embassy in Sana’a
is accredited to Eritrea. There are a few Turkishcompanies operating in Eritrea. Turkey offers one PhD scholarship to an Eritrean each year.
Turkey’s close relations with Ethiopia probably account in part for it limited ties to Eritrea.
ewest relationship is with South Sudan. Turkey established a consulategeneral in Juba in January 2011 and upgraded it to an embassy after independence in July 2011.Turkey has 26 police assigned to the UN Mission in South Sudan. Not much else is happeningwith the relationship yet and with the possible exception of Turkish commercial activity, it isdifficult to envisage much occurring in the near term.
Turkey has a modest relationship with Djibouti. The Djiboutian president visited Ankarain 2009. Turkey provides some humanitarian aid; the Turkish Red Crescent Society occasionallyengages in Djibouti. Turkey has a sizeable scholarship program for Djiboutians; there were 30 in2009-2010 and 25 in 2010-2011. The most important tie is Djibouti port calls by Turkish navalvessels that participate in the anti-piracy operation in the Gulf of Aden and off Somalia.
longest relationship is with Ethiopia. Turkey opened an embassy in AddisAbaba in 1926; Ethiopia opened one in Ankara in 1933, closed it in 1984 and reopened in 2006.Emperor Haile Selassie visited Turkey twice. The Turkish prime minister has visited Ethiopiatwice. Prime Minister Meles Zenawi was co-chair of the 2008 Turkey-Africa Summit in