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1 Project Management for Construction

1 Project Management for Construction

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Published by Eranga Ambegoda

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Published by: Eranga Ambegoda on Jul 07, 2012
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Project Management for Construction
Project Management for Construction
Fundamental Concepts for Owners, Engineers, Architects andBuilders
1.The_Owners'_Perspective 2.Organizing_For_Project_Management 3.The_Design_And_Construction_Process 4.Labor,_Material,_And_Equipment_Utilization 5.Cost_Estimation 6.Economic_Evaluation_of_Facility_Investments 7.Financing_of_Constructed_Facilities 8.Construction_Pricing_and_Contracting 9.Construction_Planning 10.Fundamental_Scheduling_Procedures 11.Advanced_Scheduling_Techniques 12.Cost_Control,_Monitoring,_and_Accounting 13.Quality_Control_and_Safety_During_Construction 14.Organization_and_Use_of_Project_Informationby Chris Hendrickson, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie MellonUniversity, Pittsburgh, PA l52l3 Copyright C. Hendrickson 1998First Edition originally printed by Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-731266-0, 1989 with co-author Tung Au.Second Edition prepared for world wide web publication in 2000.Version 2.1 prepared Summer, 2003.PrefaceThis book is provided on the worldwide web as a service to the community of practitioners and students.Reproduction for educational purposes is permitted with appropriate citation. If you find this work helpful or have suggestions for additions or corrections, please email Chris Hendrickson: cth@cmu.edu.A hardcopy Instructor's Manual with problem solutions is available for a fee of $ 10 to coverreproduction, mailing and handling. Send a check made out to Carnegie Mellon University to Ms. PattyLanger, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh,PA 15213.
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Project Management for Construction
This book develops a specific viewpoint in discussing the participants, the processes and the techniquesof project management for construction. This viewpoint is that of owners who desire completion of projects in a timely, cost effective fashion. Some profound implications for the objectives and methodsof project management result from this perspective:
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The "life cycle" of costs and benefits from initial planning through operation and disposal of afacility are relevant to decision making. An owner is concerned with a project from the cradle tothe grave. Construction costs represent only one portion of the overall life cycle costs.
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Optimizing performance at one stage of the process may not be beneficial overall if additionalcosts or delays occur elsewhere. For example, saving money on the design process will be a falseeconomy if the result is excess construction costs.
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Fragmentation of project management among different specialists may be necessary, but goodcommunication and coordination among the participants is essential to accomplish the overallgoals of the project. New information technologies can be instrumental in this process, especiallythe Internet and specialized Extranets.
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Productivity improvements are always of importance and value. As a result, introducing newmaterials and automated construction processes is always desirable as long as they are lessexpensive and are consistent with desired performance.
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Quality of work and performance are critically important to the success of a project since it is theowner who will have to live with the results.In essence, adopting the viewpoint of the owner focuses attention on the cost effectiveness of facilityconstruction rather than competitive provision of services by the various participants.While this book is devoted to a particular viewpoint with respect to project management forconstruction, it is not solely intended for owners and their direct representatives. By understanding theentire process, all participants can respond more effectively to the owner's needs in their own work, inmarketing their services, and in communicating with other participants. In addition, the specifictechniques and tools discussed in this book (such as economic evaluation, scheduling, managementinformation systems, etc.) can be readily applied to any portion of the process.As a result of the focus on the effective management of entire projects, a number of novel organizationalapproaches and techniques become of interest. First and foremost is the incentive to replaceconfrontation and adversarial relationships with a spirit of joint endeavor, partnership andaccomplishment. For example, we discuss the appropriate means to evaluate risks and the appropriateparticipants to assume the unavoidable risks associated with constructed facilities. Scheduling,communication of data, and quality assurance have particular significance from the viewpoint of anowner, but not necessarily for individual participants. The use of computer-based technology andautomation also provides opportunities for increased productivity in the process. Presenting such modernmanagement options in a unified fashion is a major objective of this book.
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Project Management for Construction
The unified viewpoint of the entire process of project management in this book differs from nearly allother literature on the subject. Most textbooks in the area treat special problems, such as cost estimating,from the viewpoint of particular participants such as construction managers or contractors. Thisliterature reflects the fragmentation of the construction process among different organizations andprofessionals. Even within a single profession such as civil engineering, there are quite distinct groups of specialists in planning, design, management, construction and other sub-specialties. Fragmentation of interest and attention also exists in nearly all educational programs. While specialty knowledge may beessential to accomplish particular tasks, participants in the process should also understand the contextand role of their special tasks.This book is intended primarily as a text for advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students orprofessionals continuing their education in engineering, construction, architecture or facilitiesmanagement. Examples and discussion are chosen to remind readers that project management is achallenging, dynamic and exciting enterprise and not just a record of past practices. It should also beuseful to professionals who wish an up-to-date reference on project management.Chapters 1 to 3 present an overview of the construction management and design process which shouldbe of interest to anyone engaged in project management for construction. One need not have detailedknowledge about individual tasks or techniques for this part. Individuals can read these chapters andunderstand the basic philosophy and principles without further elaboration.Chapters 4 through 14 describe specific functions and techniques useful in the process of projectmanagement. This part presents techniques and requirements during project planning, including risk assessment, cost estimation, forecasting and economic evaluation. It is during this planning and designphase in which major cost savings may be obtained during the eventual construction and operationphases. It also addresses programming and financing issues, such as contracting and bidding forservices, financing, organizing communication and insuring effective use of information. It furtherdiscusses techniques for control of time, cost and quality during the construction phase. Beginningcourses in engineering economics (including cash flow analysis and discounting), use of computers,probability and statistics would be useful. Furthermore, access to a personal computer with spreadsheetor equation solving software would be helpful for readers attempting some of the problems in Chapters 4to 14. Numerous software programs could be used for this purpose, including both spreadsheet andequation solving programs. Problems in some chapters could also be done on any number of existingsoftware packages for information management and project scheduling. However, the use of personalcomputers in this fashion is not required in following the text material. Each instructor may exercisediscretion in omitting some of the material in these chapters if they are redundant with other classes ortoo advanced for students in his or her own class.It is our hope that students beginning their career in project management for construction will beprepared to adopt the integrated approach emphasized in this book. Furthermore, experiencedprofessionals in various fields may discover in this book some surprises that even they have notanticipated. High level decision makers in owner organizations who are not directly involved in theproject management process may find the basic philosophy and principles of interest, especially in
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