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55167022 Cetati Si Fortificatii

55167022 Cetati Si Fortificatii

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Published by: Panait Alina on Jul 07, 2012
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Cetati si Fortificatii 
Prezentare generalaCastelele si palatele din Romania construite intr-o varietate arhitectonica de stiluri de o imensa valoare artistica, in afarafaptului ca reprezinta un scenariu istoric cu o forta evocativa si poetica fascinanta si sugestiva, va invita toate sa ledescoperiti.Sibiu, Sighisoara, Medias, Targu Mures, orase medievale din Transilvania strabatute de stradute pitorestipovestesc cu vivacitate despre trecerea teutonilor si a saxonilor in timp ce dintre castelele feudale cele mai reprezentativetrebuie sa amintim pe cel de la Bran al principelui Dracula si Castelul Corvinestilor de la Hunedoara al contelui Iancu, tatalregelui Ungariei, Matei Corvin. Mai jos va prezentam o lista cu cele mai importante castele din Romania:In captiala Romaniei, Bucuresti se gasesc urmatoarele:
Palatul Parlamentului.Palatul Elisabeta.Palatul MogosoaiaPalatul SutuPalatul Regal.Palatul Ghica TeiPalatul Cotroceni
 Castelele din Tara:
 
Ad
amclisi
( comuna Adamclisi din Dobrogea. )
 
Castelul Bran
( zona Brasov, Bran )
 
Castelul Hune
d
oara
( Hunedoara )
 
Castelul Peles
( Sinaia )
 
Castelul Pelisor
( Sinaia )
 
Cetatea Callatis
( Mangalia )
Cetatea Câlnic
( Calnic )
Cetatea Ciceu
( Ciceu )
Cetatea Deva
( Deva )
Cetatea Fagaras
( Fagaras )
Cetatea Giurgiu
( Giurgiu )
 
Cetatea Histria
 
Cetatea Me
d
ias
( Medias )
 
Cetatea Neamt
( Neamt )
 
Cetatea Poienari
( satul Poienari )
Cetatea Prejmer
( zona Brasov, Prejmer )
 
Cetatea Rasnov
( zona Brasov, Rasnov )
Cetatea Sighisoara
( Sighisoara )
Cetatea Suceava
( Suceava )
Cetatea Timisoara
( Timisoara )
Cetatea Tomis
( Constanta )
Sarmizegetusa Regia
( Grâdistea Muncelului )
 
U
lpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa
( Portile de Fier ale Transilvaniei. )
rovincia Moldova
1
.
 
Cetatea Suceava
- fosta capitala a Moldovei in perioada medievala, Suceava pastreaza o cetate puternicfortificata construita in prima faza de catre Petru Musat in secolul XIV. Refacuta si consolidata de catre Alexandrucel Bun si mai ales de catre Stefan cel Mare, cetatea Sucevei devine de necucerit. In sec. XVII cetatea esteparasita si devine treptat ruina.
2.
 
Cetatea Neamtului
- construita pe un versant de munte, ofera o larga priveliste spre valea Ozanei. Asemuita cuun Cuib de vulturi moldav, cetatea Neamtului a fost construita de catre Petru Musat I in
1395
si reconstruita decatre Stefan cel Mare in sec. XV. Cu toate ca cetatea a cunoscut numeroase asedii in timpul Sultanului Mehmed alII-lea si a regelui polon Ioan Sobieski, cetatea nu a putut fi cucerita niciodata prin lupta dreapta.
 
3
.
 
Cetatea Hotinului
- situata in partea de nord a Moldovei mari (astazi pe teritoriul de ocupatie Ucrainiana) pemalul raului Nistru, Cetatea Hotinului este o importanta cetate moldoveneasca construita in perioada mareluiStefan.
4.
 
Cetatea Soroca
- construita pe malul raului Nistru in secolul XIV de catre domnii moldovei pe locul unei vechicetati genoveze - Alcionia. Cetatea se pastreaza in conditii bune, remarcanduse peretii masivi si inalti strajuiti destalpi de straja. Cetatea cunoaste apogeul in timpul domniei lui Stefan cel Mare si a fiului sau Petru Rares. Astazise afla pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova.
5
.
 
Cetatea Tighina
- se pastreaza in conditii deosebit de bune, dar din pacate momentan se afla in zona de controlal armatei separatiste din Transnistria. Construita in secolul XIV de catre domnitorul Stefan cel Mare. Din anul
1535
, cetatea intra in mainile otomane pane in anul
181
2. Cetatea Tighina a fost si loc de refugiu pentru regeleSuediei, Carol al XIII -lea dupa catastrofala sa expeditie impotriva Rusiei tariste intre
1709
-
1711
.
6.
 
Cetatea
A
lba
- este cea mai masiva si impresionanta cetate construita de domnitorii moldoveni. Situata la gurileNistrului cetatea a constituit un important loc de paza la Marea Neagra. Astazi este pe teritoriul ocupat de Ucrainasi cetatii ii este atribuita de catre ucrainieni o istorie bizara, inca departe de documentele istorice.
rovincia Dobrogea
1
.
 
Ruinele
Cetatii Heracleea
- cu adanci radacini bizantine, cetatea Heracleea a fost construita de catre navigatoriiGenovezi iar dupa
1388
intra sub stapanirea domnitorului valah Mircea cel Batran. Din
1
4
17
pana in
1878
,cetatea va apartine otomanilor.
allachia (Muntenia si Oltenia)
rovince
1.
 
Cetatea Poienari
- a fost construita in secolul XIV pe Muntele Cetatuia sub domnia lui Vlad Tepes. Se spune cala aceasta lucrare grea, Vlad Tepes a folosit ca mana de lucru pe toti tradatorii tarii. Cetatea strajuieste valeaArgesului fiind despartita de peste
1000
de trepte pana la aceasta.
2
.
 
Ruinele
Cetatii Negru Vo
d
a
- situata intr-o zona mai greu accesibila langa localitatea Cetateni, avea rolul de asupraveghea valea Dambovitei. Cetatea ii este atribuita ca ctitor legendarului domnitor Negru Voda. Astazi se maipastreaza aici niste ruine modeste.
3.
 
Ruinele
Cetatii Me
d
ievale Giurgiu -
A fost construita de catre Mircea cel Batran in secolul XIV pe o insula infata orasului actual. A fost un important punct strategic la Dunare. Astazi deslusim cateva ruine modeste.
4.
 
Ruinele
Cetatii Severinului
- a fost construita in secolul XIII si a rezistat pana in
15
24 cand a fost distrusa detrupele otomane. In iteriorul cetatii se afla urmele unei biserici.
5.
 
Cetatea
Ad
a Kaleh
- a interesanta cetatea pe Dunare care o data cu realizarea lacului de acumulare de la Portilede Fier a fost stramutate pe insula Semian.
rovincia Banat 
 
1
.
 
Ruinele
Cetatii Carasova
- o cetate uriasa construita in
1333
.2.
 
Bastionul Cetatii - Timisoara. Este una din putinele cetati in stil Vauban care mai poate fi admirata astazi. Cetateaa fost construita cu ziduri masive de caramida intre anii
1730
-
1733
.
3
.
 
Ruinele cetatii Morisena din Cenad - cetatea a fost construita in sec. X4.
 
Ruinele cetatii Ciacova - din cetatea construita intre anii
1390
-
139
4 astazi se mai pastreaza un turn de aparare.
5
.
 
Cetatea
d
e Piatra
d
e la Siria
- constrita in
1331
, cetatea a fost resedinta regala. Aceasta a adapostit numecunoscute ale istoriei: Iancu de Hunedoara, regele Sigismund de Luxemburg, domnitorul sarb George Brancovicisi membrii ai familiei Bathory.6.
 
A
ra
d
Fortress
- in Vauban style, this fortress was built between
17
62-
1783
by Queen Maria Theresa. The formsis like a star with six corners. Inside is ruins of a chapel.
7
.
 
The
Stone Fortress of Soimus
(
1
2
78
) - dominate the Mures valley, during the time it belongs toTransylvanians, Turks, Hungarians, after
1
6
88
the fortress it become a ruins.
8
.
 
A
gris Fortress
- in west part of Apuseni Mountains was built in
1
4
00
.
ransylvania
rovince
1
.
 
The
Deva Fortress
(
13
th
century) - built on a volcanic cone that dominates the city center from an altitude of 
18
4m. Attested in
1
26
9
, it was one of the strongest fortresses in Transylvania. It was left in
18
4
9
when, becauseof the explosion of powder reserves, the walls of the fortress blew up.2.
 
Colt Fortress
(
1
4
th
century) - in a spectacular place close to impressive Retezat Mountains, it inspired thegreatest artists like Jules Verne who write "The Castle from Carpathians". Now is only ruins.
3
.
 
The
Corvins Castle
- a fortress castle in Hunedoara town, very impressive with countless towers was built inthe
13
th
century on a piece of rock. Developed few centuries later, the castle mixes the Gothic style withcharacteristic elements of Renaissance and Baroque.4.
 
A
lba Iulia Fortress
- the first medieval fortress (it was built by ruler Gyla in the
9
th
-
10
th
century).
5
.
 
Fortress-
A
iu
d
, (
13
th
-
15
th
century), among the oldest urban fortification in Transylvania.6.
 
Fortress Taiuti
, from Trascau Mountains (built in
1
2
7
6).
 
7
.
 
Me
d
ieval Fortifications- Sibiu
, a great numbers of towers: The City Hall Tower built in the
1
2
th
century andmodified in the
15
th
and
17
th
centuries and in
18
26; The Stairs Tower - one of the oldest constructions of thetown, raised in
13
th
century; The Gate's Tower (
15
th
century); The Carpenters' Tower; The Harquebusiers' Tower;Potters' Tower; Soldisch Bastion; Powder Warehouse Tower.
8
.
 
Fortress with
 
Roman Basilica - Cisna
d
ioara
, one of the most remarkable monuments of this style inTransylvania.
9
.
 
The Ruins of the
Fortress Talmaciu
- documentary mentioned in
1370
under the name of "Castrum Lanchron",the fortification dominates the Olt Valley when the river enters Turnu Rosu narrow path.
10
.
 
The ruins of the
Fortress Me
d
ias
, there are still standing in interior walls and defense towers raised between the
15
-
1
6
th
century.
11
.
 
Salo Fortress
- Sibiel (
1
2
th
-
13
th
).
1
2.
 
Rural
 
fortress
 
Biertan
(
15
-
1
6
th
century) - one of the most impressive constructions of this type in Transylvania.UNESCO patrimony.
13
.
 
The Fortress of Brasov
- built in period of the Sigismund of Luxembourg, King of Hungary. It was built start in
1395
and it was one of the strongest fortress in Transylvania.
1
4.
 
Rasnov Fortress
- was built in
1
4
th
century. Is one of the biggest rural fortress in country.
15
.
 
The Ruins of the Rupea Fortress - built in
1
4-
1
6
th
century. on big rock.
1
6.
 
Fagaras Fortress
- a beautiful fortress situated in the middle of Fagaras town, built in
15
th
century. Inside of thefortress is a big castle, now a great museum and library.
17
.
 
The
Brasov Towers
(bastions) - many fortified towers (bastions) made by people from Brasov town to protecttheir family and works. The most important is the Weavers' Bastion (
1
42
1
-
1573
) when we find Brasov FortressMuseum.
18
.
 
Bran Castle
- an impressive medieval construction knowned around the word by the Dracula legend. It was builtbetween
1377
-
138
2 on a rock mountain and preserve elements of original Gothic style. Today this mysteriousfortified castle was restored and host a museum of medieval art.
19
.
 
Fel
d
ioara Fortress
- built between
1
2
11
-
1
22
5
by the Teutonic Knights. After
1
4
57
it belongs to peasants.2
0
.
 
Prejmer Fortress
(
15
th
century) - a great fortress with many rooms on many levels. The walls has 4 mthickness and it was the powerful peasants fortress in Transylvania.2
1
.
 
The
Fortress from Ilieni
(
15
th
century) - a great fortress with a great history made by Szekels people.22.
 
Pagans' Fortress
- Balvanyos (
13
th
century) also named the Idolatrous Castle, is a Szekels building situated in abeautiful and wild area.2
3
.
 
Miko Fortress
, Miercurea Ciuc - built in
1
62
1
on the place of a previous fortress. Now it host the EthnographicMuseum of the province.24.
 
Sighisoara Fortress
- one of the most beautiful medieval fortress and the only inhabited in Europe. Situated ona large hill, it was built in
13
th
century, but it has many changes during the history. We can admire: The ClockTower, The Ropes' Tower, The Tinkers' Tower, The Tanners' Tower, The Cobblers'Tower...This fortress has manycontacts with Dracula legend, and here in every July is a big and interesting festival of Medieval Art. UNESCOpatrimony.2
5
.
 
Medieval Fortress from Targu Mures - built in the
15
th
century, was expanded with
7
new towers in
17
th
century.26.
 
The
Ruins of the
 
Ciceu Fortress
- this fortress was built between
1
2
03
-
1
2
0
4 and it was a great fortress with agreat history in Middle Age. This fortress belonged to Moldavian rulers, like Stephan the Great, Petru Rares,Alexandru Lapusneanu. Now just ruins.2
7
.
 
The
Ruins of the
 
Ro
d
na Fortress
(
10
th
century), was an important fortress in region.2
8
.
 
Me
d
ieval Fortress Dabaca
- has an important place in Transylvania history, special between
10
-
1
4
th
century,when become a royal fortress.2
9
.
 
Me
d
ieval Fortress Bologa
- was mentioned in
13
22, and possessed by Vallahian ruler, Mircea the Elder, at theend of the
1
4
th
century.
30
.
 
The Ruins of the Oradea Fortress - was built between
111
4-
1131
, grooves with water.
31
.
 
Me
d
ieval Fortress
 
A
lmas
- one of the oldest and impressive medieval fortresses in Transylvania (
1
24
7
-
1
2
78
).Between
15
4
5
-
15
46 this fortress belonged to Moldavian ruler Petru Rares. Today only ruins.
3
2.
 
Fortress from Simleul Silvaniei
- built in
153
2 by Bathory family. Today is ruins.
33
.
 
The Ruins of 
Feu
d
al Fortress Cheu
d
, an impressive fortress mentioned in
1387
.
3
4.
 
Fortifie
d
Castle
A
r
d
u
d
, built in
1
4
81
. Today it preserve only a fortified tower and few ruins.
Castelul Bran
Situat la
30
km de Brasov, intre Muntii Bucegi si Piatra Craiului, Castelul Bran este un important monument national sipunct de reper al turismului din Romania, datorita atat frumusetii lui, a peisajului, cat si a legendei contelui Dracula, alcarui spirit bantuie inca aceste locuri stravechi.Prima atestare documentara a Castelului Bran o reprezinta actul emis la
19
noiembrie
1377
de Ludovic I d'Anjou prin carebrasovenii primeau privilegiul de a construi Cetatea "cu munca si cheltuiala lor proprie" ... In schimb, regele confirmasubordonarea a
13
localitati fata de Cetate. Conducerea Cetatii Bran era incredintata unui castelan, care avea si atributii jurisdictionale, iar garnizoana permanenta era compusa din arcasi si balistari. Intre anii
1
4
19
-
1
424, Cetatea revine inposesia lui Sigismund.

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