1. The correct answer is C.
During exercise with skeletal muscle, the dominant vascular control of themuscle is metabolic. With exercise, the muscle cells release numerous metabolites, including adenosine,lactic acid, and CO
. The effect of these is referred to as “metabolic vasodilation” via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. The arteriolar dilation that results allows increased blood flow to the muscleduring exercise.Capillary hydrostatic pressure tends to increase rather than decrease
during intense dynamicexercise because of increased arterial blood pressure and arteriolar dilation.Decreased metabolite concentration
is incorrect because exercising muscle releases higher levels of metabolites than quiescent muscle does.Oxygen concentration in exercising muscle tends to decrease rather than increase
due toincreased oxygen utilization, though it remains near resting level as long as the anaerobic threshold is notcrossed.Decreased vascular resistance occurs during dynamic exercise, such as an exercise stress test. During theactive contraction of the muscle, compression of vessels does transiently increase resistance; but whenthe muscle relaxes, the metabolic vasodilation allows hyperemia. So during a stress test the averagevascular resistance decreases, thus increased vascular resistance
2. The correct answer is D.
The child’s pain is of the outer ear, which is worsened by manipulation.This appearance is classic for otitis externa, a relatively common infection that is often caused by
. Seen more frequently in children, it occurs more often in regular swimmers secondary towater becoming trapped in the ear canal. Treatment is usually straightforward but has the potential for serious complications in the diabetic or immunocompromised patient.Infections of the middle ear
are characterized by bulging of the tympanic membrane. In thesecases the external ear is not painful.In bullous myringitis
, the tympanic membrane is inflamed and painful vesicles are present.The new onset of pain in the external ear makes a chronic middle-ear infection
an unlikelydiagnosis.Middle-ear infections can spread to the mastoid air cells, leading to mastoiditis
The correct answer is C.
Halving the amount of enzyme will halve the velocity of the reaction at eachhigher substrate concentration. Therefore, curve 3 is correct. At very low substrate concentrations, theamount of enzyme is not limiting, and the curve resembles that of the control. This feature is also seen incurve 3.Curve 1
has the same maximum velocity as the control curve, but has a faster velocity at