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The NOI 1930 -1996, THE BLACK SCHOLAR

The NOI 1930 -1996, THE BLACK SCHOLAR

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The NOI 1930 -1996, THE BLACK SCHOLAR
The NOI 1930 -1996, THE BLACK SCHOLAR

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Published by: Rbg Street Scholar on Jul 09, 2012
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06/26/2014

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THE
BLACK
SCHOLAR
The
Nation
of
Islam
:
1930-1996
 
O
NEOFTHE
MORE
PROFOUND
cultural
and
political
phenomena
of
the
late
twenti-
eth
century
has
been
the
religious
conversionof
approximately
one
million
African
Ameri-
cans
to
Islam
'
Encroaching
upon
a
domain
over
which
Christianity
held
virtual
sway
for
oneand
a
half
centuries,
this
recent
turn
of
events
owesmost
of
its
influence
to
an
organi-zation
known
as
the
Nation
of
Islam
(NOI)
.2
The
NOI
-
oth
the
original
group
and
its
offshoots
-
ffers
an
intriguing
example
ofa
religious-oriented
nationalist
movement
which,overa
period
of
six
decades,
has
come
to
embrace
traditional
Islam
inhalting
and
contradictory
ways
.
At
times
this
embrace
has
been
direct
and
deliberate
;
at
other
times
more
indirect
and
pragmatic,
in
order
that
central
aims
might
be
more
effectively
pur-
sued
.
Minor
organizational
discontinuities
aside,
the
NOI
has
proved
to
be
the
largest
and
longest-livedinstitutionalized
nationalist
movement
among
blacks
inthe
United
States,
far
outstripping
the
widespread
appeal
and
influenceof
Marcus
Garvey'sUniversal
Negro
Improvement
Association
which
flourished
during
World
War
I
and
the
immediate
post-
war
years
.
With
the
passing
of
its
supreme
leader,
Elijah
Muhammad,
in
early
1975,
the
Nation
of
Islam
reached
a
fundamental
divide
.
Pro-
pelled
by
Mr
Muhammad's
son,
Wallace,the
NOI
quickly
underwent
fundamental
changes
in
structure
and
belief,as
well
asin
name
.
From
a
large
sect
preaching
nominal
Islam
the
group
rapidly
evolved
into
a
Sunni
Page
2
Religious
Heterodoxy
and
Nationalist
Tradition
:
The
Continuing
Evolution
of
the
Nation
of
Islam
by
Ernest
Allen,
Jr
.
Islamic
community
with
substantive
ties
to
a
larger
international
community
of
religious
adherents
.
In
October
1976
the
NOI
became
the
World
Community
of
al-Islam
in
the
West
(WCIW)
;
in
its
final
incarnation,
lasting
from
May
1980
through
May
1985,
theorga-
nization
was
known
as
the
AmericanMuslim
Mission
(AMM),
after
which
time
it
disband-
ed
.
Today
the
work
of
Wallace
Muhammad
-
honow
goes
by
the
name
of
Warith
Deen
Mohammed
-
s
primarily
evangelical,
his
constituency
comprised
basically
of
African
American
Muslims
who
regularlyattend
some
200
plus
masjids
throughout
the
United
States
.
Within
Islamic
circlesat
home
and
abroad,
Imam
Mohammed's
voice
car-
ries
considerable
influence
within
the
secu-
lar
world
he
rarely
hasbeen
heard
from
in
recent
years,
save
for
occasional
interviews
in
the
press
.
Politically
conservative
and
entre-
preneurially
inclined,
Imam
Mohammed's
secularviews
correspond
with
the
most
reserved
elements
ofthe
black
middle-class,
its
business-oriented
stratain
particular
.
The
political
outlooks
of
hisfollowers,
however,
appear
to
follow
diverse
paths
.
W
RE
THAT
THEONLY
STORY
TO
TELL,
it
would
be
a
remarkable
one,
indeed
.
African
Americans
now
constitute
the
largest
single
"ethnic
bloc"within
a
religious
com-munity
comprised
of
millions
of
Muslims,
both
immigrant
and
native-born,
residing
in
the
United
States
.
However,
in
1978
the
pic-
ture
was
further
complicatedby
the
splinter-
THEBLACKSCHOLAR
VOLUME
26,
NO
3-4
 
ing
off
of
a
new
formation
from
theranks
of
the
transformed
NOI
-
hen
known
as
the
WCIW
Distressed
with
the
sweepingchanges
in
doctrine
and
organizational
structureas
well
as
the
loss
of
economic
empire
amassed
under
the
old
group,
Minister
Louis
Far-
rakhan
led
thousandsof
dissatisfied
follow-
ers
intoa
newly
constituted
Nationof
Islam
.
Nor
wasFarrakhan
the
only
defector
By
far
the
most
capable
and
charismaticleader
to
emerge
during
the
NOI/WCIW/AMM
transition
period,
he
nonetheless
has
distant
rivals
among
others
dissatisfied
with
the
course
set
by
Warith
Deen
Mohammed
These
include
Silis
Muhammad,
who
along
with
Abu
Koss
subsequently
establishedthe
Lost-FoundNation
of
Islam
(LFNOI),
based
in
Atlanta
;
Brother
Solomon
(a
.k
.a
.
Royall
X
Jenkins)
and
his
spokesperson,
former
NOI
secretary
Abass
Rassoull,
whose
organization
at
Camp
Springs,
Maryland
is
known
as
the
UnitedNation
of
Islam
(UNOI)
;
and
John
Muhammad,
younger
brother
of
Elijah,
who,
whilemaintaining
a
distance
from
Farrakhan's
organization,
hasretainedthe
NOI
name
forhis
Detroit
temple
.'
The
Five
Percenters,
an
earlier
but
structurally
amorphous
spinoff
formed
in
Harlem,
New
York
City
in
1964,
continue
to
exertinfluence
not
only
upon
inner-city
youth,
but
collegestudents
as
well
-
specially
through
the
medium
of
rap
music
.
None
of
these
groups
have
significant-
ly
contestedFarrakhan's
leadership
.
Since
his
break,
Louis
Farrakhan's
NOI
has
succeeded
in
expanding
its
membership,
reclaiming
a
portion
ofthe
economic
hold-ings
of
the
pre-1975group,
and
amassing
new
enterprisesaswell
.
Retaining
core
ele-
ments
of
theold
doctrine
while
selectively
appropriating
additional
elementsof
tradi-
tionalIslam,
the
perennially
militant
NOI
-
like
its
predecessor
-
inds
principal
sup-
port
among
economically
dispossessed
African
Americans,
the
number
of
which
appears
toincrease
with
each
passing
day
Doctrinally,
the
LFNOI
devotes
considerable
energies
to
scriptural
prophecy,
not
least
of
which
is
the
supposition
that
Brother
Solomon
of
the
LFNOI
is
identical
to
King
Solomon
of
the
Bible,
whereas
the
UNOI's
overriding
concern
lies
in
its
reparations
claims
upon
the
U
S
.
government
.
While
the
THE
BLACKSCHOLAR
VOLUME
26,
NO
3-4
Lost
Found
Nation
of
Islam,
the
United
Nation
of
Islam,
and
theDetroit-based
Nationof
Islam
also
draw
upon
the
"econom-
ically
challenged,"
the
latter
two
groups,
espe-
cially,
take
pride
in
preserving
venerable
NOI
orthodoxy
against
any
doctrinal
or
ritualistic
changes,
apostasiesfor
which
they
occasional-
ly
chastise
Minister
Farrakhan
.
Initially
criti-
cal
of
Farrakhan,
the
LFNOI,
for
its
part,
has
sought
a
rapprochement
withthe
NOI
leader,
with
no
reported
successthus
far
.'
Without
question,
the
principal
"competi-
tion"
for
members
on
the
African
American
Islamic
front
now
rests
between
the
con-
stituencies
represented
by
Warith
Deen
Mohammed
and
Louis
Farrakhan
.
The
prima-
ry
difference
between
the
two,
however,
lies
in
the
realm
of
religious
orthodoxy,
social-class
constituency,
corresponding
degreeof
mili-
tancy,
and
organizational
centralization
.
The
followers
of
both
tend
to
associatetheir
eco-
nomic
successes
-
nd
how
could
theynot?
-
iththe
righteousness
of
their
respective
spiritual
trajectories
.
And
both
groups
tend
towards
political
conservatism
.
"Up
You
Mighty
Race"
:
The
Nationalist
Legacyof
the
Universal
NegroImprovement
Association
A
S
A
RELIGIOUS-NATIONALIST
MOVEMENT,
what
were
the
ideological
sourcesofthe
NOI's
nationalism,
theconstraints
and
compulsions
by
which
its
political
and
identity
concerns
were
given
shape?
A
fundamental
duality
has
tended
to
besetAfrican
American
communi-
ties
from
the
late
18th
century
to
this
day
On
the
one
hand,black
people
have,
from
the
beginning
of
the
republic,
demanded
full
social
and
political
rights
based
upon
their
pre-
sumed
birth-rightcitizenship
status
.
That
status
having
been
denied,theyhave
often
opted
for
a
political
and
economic
self-determination
anchored
in
the
renunciation,
implicit
or
oth-
erwise,
of
American
civic
identity
This
latter
tendency
has
sometimesblossomed
into
demands
for
full
political
autonomy
Given
the
difficulties
ofsecuring
an
autonomous
territor-
ial
basewithin
the
United
States,
however,
African
American
political
nationalism
-
ntil
the
mid-1960s
at
least
-
ended
to
flow
largely
through
emigrationist
channels
.
Page
3

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