The petroleum industry comprise of upstream and downstream sectors. Upstreaminvolves exploration, development, and production of oil and gas.Downstream covers transport, refining, petrochemicals, distribution, andretail.
Oil and gas exploration encompasses the processes and methods involved inlocatingand discovering potential sites for oil and gas drilling and extraction.This is the first-stage of oil and gas production. Many uncertainties exist during.and seismic imagingfor offshore exploration.
1.3 Drilling & Extraction
Drilling is the final stage in the exploration process. When 3D seismic has beencompleted, it is time to drill the well. Onshore exploration relies on fixed or mobiledrillings rigs. Offshore exploration can require fixed offshore Jack up drill rigs, Semi-