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FAS Social Unrest In China

FAS Social Unrest In China

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Congressional Research Service 
 
˜
 
The Library of Congress 
CRS Report for Congress
Received through theCRS Web
Order Code RL33416
Social Unrest in China
May 8, 2006
Thomas LumSpecialist in Asian AffairsForeign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
 
Social Unrest in China
Summary
In the past few years, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has experiencedrising social unrest, including protests, demonstrations, picketing, and grouppetitioning. According to PRC official sources, “public order disturbances” havegrown by nearly 50% in the past two years, from 58,000 incidents in 2003 to 87,000in 2005. Although political observers have described social unrest among farmersand workers since the early 1990s, recent protest activities have been broader inscope, larger in average size, greater in frequency, and more brash than those of adecade ago. Fears of greater unrest have triggered debates with the Communist Partyleadership about the pace of economic reforms and the proper way to respond toprotesters.Workers in state-owned enterprises and the special economic zones producinggoods for export, peasants and urban residents who have lost their farmland or homesto development projects, and others have engaged in mass protests, some of themviolent, often after having exhausted legal channels for resolving grievances. ADecember 2005 clash between villagers and police in Dongzhou village, southeasternGuangdong province, in which 3-20 villagers were killed, has became a symbol of the depth of anger of those with grievances and the inability of Chineseadministrative, legal, and political institutions to resolve disputes peacefully. U.S.interests regarding social unrest in China include human rights concerns, ongoingU.S.-funded democracy and rule-of-law programs in the country, the effects of socialunrest on U.S. investments in China, and the effects on PRC foreign policy.Growing disparities of income, official corruption, and the lack of democraticinstitutions are likely to continue to fuel social unrest. The potential for widespreadsocial upheaval has captured the keen attention of the Communist Party leadership.However, in the medium term, the PRC government is likely to be able to containprotests through policies that mix accommodation and violence and that promotecontinued economic growth. Most analysts do not expect social unrest to evolve intoa national political movement unless linkages among disaffected groups strengthenand other social groups, particularly the middle class, intellectuals, and students, jointhe protests as well.Policy options for Congress include increasing assistance for local democracy,civil society, rule-of-law, and environmental programs in China, supporting a freepress and independent judiciary, and pressing the Chinese government to respect therights of protestors and release jailed activists. December 15, 2005, a bi-partisangroup of U.S. congressional leaders submitted a letter to the PRC Ambassador to theUnited States, Zhou Wenzhong, expressing “deep concern” over the shootingincident in Dongzhou.This report, which will be updated periodically, discusses the causes of growingsocial unrest in China and describes recent incidents, explains how the PRCgovernment responds to protest activities, analyzes implications for PRC politics, andprovides policy options for Congress.
 
Contents
Overview........................................................1Protest Groups....................................................2Farmers.....................................................2Workers.....................................................5State-Owned Enterprises....................................5Special Economic Zones....................................6Homeowners.................................................7Government Responses.............................................8Trends and Implications............................................10Underlying Causes............................................10Inequality and Corruption..................................10Growing Rights Consciousness, Organizational Skill, andPublicity............................................11Comparisons with Other Social Movements........................12Limitations on Mass Movements in China.........................13Political Ramifications.........................................14Impact on Foreign Investment...................................15Policy Options for Congress........................................15

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