Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Dynamic Visual Acuity over Head Movements

Dynamic Visual Acuity over Head Movements

Ratings: (0)|Views: 46 |Likes:
Joseph L. Demer, J. & Firooz Amjadi, F. (1993). Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 34(6), 1894-1906.

From abstract in article:

Purpose. To characterize the effect of passive vertical head motion on dynamic visual acuity of young, normally sighted subjects wearing telescopic spectacles, and to relate this to the velocity of images on the retina.

Methods. Static visual acuity was measured without motion. Dynamic visual acuity was measured during vertical, sinusoidal motion of either optotypes or of a servo-driven rotating chair in which subjects were seated. Dynamic visual acuity for head motion was measured unaided, as well as with 1.9X, 4X, and 6X telescopic spectacles. Vertical eye movements were recorded
using magnetic search coils.

Results. During optotype motion, acuity declined with increasing velocity to a minimum of ~20/200 at 100°/sec. Pursuit gain (eye velocity/optotype velocity) for moving optotypes was low except for optotype velocities of 20°/sec of less. Dynamic visual acuity without telescopic spectacles was not sensitive to head motion. Static visual acuity improved with increasing telescopic spectacle power, but dynamic visual acuity became progressively impaired by head motion as telescopic spectacle power was increased. Compared with static visual acuity, head motion with peak velocity of 40°/sec reduced acuity two-fold for 1.9X telescopic spectacles, fourfold for 4X telescopic spectacles, and eightfold for 6X telescopic spectacles. Visual vestibulo-ocular rellex gain with telescopic spectacles increased to values markedly above 1.0, but was always less than telescopic spectacle magnification. There was visual tolerance of slip velocities of 2°/sec or less, above which acuity declined in proportion to the 0.6 power of retinal slip velocity. Above 2°/sec, retinal slip velocity accounted for 95% of the variance in dynamic visual acuity.

Conclusions. These results confirm that acuity is sensitive to retinal image motion in the vertical direction, and extend this finding to indicate that sensitivity of acuity to vertical head motion during wearing of telescopic spectacles is attributable to retinal image slip velocity.

Joseph L. Demer, J. & Firooz Amjadi, F. (1993). Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 34(6), 1894-1906.

From abstract in article:

Purpose. To characterize the effect of passive vertical head motion on dynamic visual acuity of young, normally sighted subjects wearing telescopic spectacles, and to relate this to the velocity of images on the retina.

Methods. Static visual acuity was measured without motion. Dynamic visual acuity was measured during vertical, sinusoidal motion of either optotypes or of a servo-driven rotating chair in which subjects were seated. Dynamic visual acuity for head motion was measured unaided, as well as with 1.9X, 4X, and 6X telescopic spectacles. Vertical eye movements were recorded
using magnetic search coils.

Results. During optotype motion, acuity declined with increasing velocity to a minimum of ~20/200 at 100°/sec. Pursuit gain (eye velocity/optotype velocity) for moving optotypes was low except for optotype velocities of 20°/sec of less. Dynamic visual acuity without telescopic spectacles was not sensitive to head motion. Static visual acuity improved with increasing telescopic spectacle power, but dynamic visual acuity became progressively impaired by head motion as telescopic spectacle power was increased. Compared with static visual acuity, head motion with peak velocity of 40°/sec reduced acuity two-fold for 1.9X telescopic spectacles, fourfold for 4X telescopic spectacles, and eightfold for 6X telescopic spectacles. Visual vestibulo-ocular rellex gain with telescopic spectacles increased to values markedly above 1.0, but was always less than telescopic spectacle magnification. There was visual tolerance of slip velocities of 2°/sec or less, above which acuity declined in proportion to the 0.6 power of retinal slip velocity. Above 2°/sec, retinal slip velocity accounted for 95% of the variance in dynamic visual acuity.

Conclusions. These results confirm that acuity is sensitive to retinal image motion in the vertical direction, and extend this finding to indicate that sensitivity of acuity to vertical head motion during wearing of telescopic spectacles is attributable to retinal image slip velocity.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Laboratory in the Wild on Jul 09, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/09/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Dynamic Visual Acuity of Normal Subjects During VerticalOptotype and Head Motion
Joseph L.
Demer^-f
and Firooz
AmjadiX
Purpose.
To characterize the effect of passive vertical head motion on dynamic visual acuity ofyoung, normally sighted subjects wearing telescopic spectacles, and to relate this to the velocityof images on the retina.
Methods.
Static visual acuity was measured without motion. Dynamic visual acuity was mea-sured during vertical, sinusoidal motion of either optotypes or of
a
servo-driven rotating chairin which subjects were seated. Dynamic visual acuity for head motion was measured unaided,as well as with 1.9X, 4X, and 6X telescopic spectacles. Vertical eye movements were recordedusing magnetic search coils.
Results.
During optotype motion, acuity declined with increasing velocity to a minimum of~20/200 at 100°/sec. Pursuit gain (eye velocity/optotype velocity) for moving optotypes waslow except for optotype velocities of 20°/sec of less. Dynamic visual acuity without telescopicspectacles was not sensitive to head motion. Static visual acuity improved with increasingtelescopic spectacle power, but dynamic visual acuity became progressively impaired by headmotion as telescopic spectacle power was increased. Compared with static visual acuity, headmotion with peak velocity of 40°/sec reduced acuity two-fold for 1.9X telescopic spectacles,fourfold for 4X telescopic spectacles, and eightfold for 6X telescopic spectacles. Visual vestibu-lo-ocular rellex gain with telescopic spectacles increased to values markedly above 1.0, but wasalways less than telescopic spectacle magnification. There was visual tolerance of slip velocitiesof 2°/sec or less, above which acuity declined in proportion to the 0.6 power of retinal slipvelocity. Above 2°/sec, retinal slip velocity accounted for
95%
of the variance in dynamic visualacuity.
Conclusions.
These results confirm that acuity is sensitive to retinal image motion in the verticaldirection, and extend this finding to indicate that sensitivity of acuity to vertical head motionduring wearing of telescopic spectacles is attributable to retinal image slip velocity. InvestOphthalmol Vis Sci 1993;34:1894-1906.
.Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is that acuity obtainedduring relative motion of either optotypes or ob-server.
1
It has long been known that motion reduces
From
the * Jules Stein Eye Institute and ^Department oj Neurology, UCLA Medical
School,
and
%University
of
California
at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.Supported by U.S. Public Health Service grants EY-08656 and NS-10940, andgrants from the Karl Kirchgessuer Foundation and
Research
to Prevent lilindness.JLD
was
a
Research
to Prevent lilindness William and Mary Creve International
Research
Scholar.Submitted for publication:
December
31, 1991; accepted July 17, 1992.
Proprietary
InterestCategory:N.Reprint Requests:
Joseph
L.
Demer,
Jules Stein Eye Institute, ComprehensiveDivision, 100 Stein Plaza, UCLA, Los Angeles. CA 90024-7002.
DVA as compared with static values obtained withoutrelative motion. Classical studies involving moving op-totypes have suggested that DVA decreases accordingto the cube of horizontal
2
-
3
or vertical optotype ve-locity.
4
A number of investigators have simultaneouslymeasured horizontal eye movements during DVA test-ing with moving optotypes, and related reduction inDVA to limitations on pursuit tracking.
5
-
67
Murphymeasured horizontal eye movements and contrastthresholds for square wave gratings moving at veloci-
1894
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, May 1993, Vol. 34, No. 6Copyright © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
 
Vertical Dynamic Visual Acuity1895
ties
up to
7°/sec, concluding that visual sensitivity
is
not reduced
by
pursuit
itself, but is
limited
by
velocityerrors
in
pursuit.
8
Many previous studies
of
DVA
havenot measured
the
tracking
eye
movements that serveto reduce
the
motion
of
images
on the
retina.
In
fact,
it
is common
to
employ DVA
as an
indirect indicator
of
the effectiveness
of
pursuit tracking,
9
or of
vestibular-evoked
eye
movements
in
stabilizing gaze during headrotation.
10
" Such studies highlight
the
importance
of
DVA
in
relation
to
self-motion
of the
observer
in the
environment.
12
Even when attempting
to
stand
com-
pletely
at
rest, humans exhibit significant involuntaryhead movements about
the
vertical axis (yaw), aboutthe interaural axis (pitch),
and
about
the
anteroposte-rior axis (roll).
1314
Maximum head velocities duringrunning
are up to
90°/sec, with predominant
fre-
quencies
up to 2.7 Hz for
yaw
and 8.2 Hz for
pitch.
15
The mechanics
of
the head
and
neck
are
such that
the
frequency
of
involuntary head movements
in the
pitchaxis tends
to be
substantially higher,
and
often
at
higher velocity, than head movements
in the
other tworotational axes.
12131415
This implies that vertical
self-
rotation
is
likely
to be
significant
for the
visual system.The major reflex producing compensatory move-ments during self-rotation
is the
vestibulo-ocular
re-
Ilex (VOR). During vision, other mechanisms augmentthe
VOR,
producing
the
visual vestibulo-ocular reflex(WOR).
The
gain
of
compensatory
eye
movements
is
defined
as the
ratio
of eye
velocity
to
head velocity.
Thus,
the
normal ideal gain
of 1.0
implies that
eye
velocity
is
equal
and
opposite head velocity, stabilizingthe retina
in
space. Very precise studies
of
active hori-zontal
and
vertical
eye
movements indicate that this
is
very nearly
the
case,
but
that gain averages
—1-2%
less than
the
ideal value.
16
Because
of
this residualerror, very rapid head rotations
can
overwhelm
the
WOR even
in
normal subjects.
1017
Telescopic spectacles with magnifications
of
2-8Xare commonly employed as visual aids
for
patients with
low
vision,
defined
as
significant
but
incomplete visual
loss.
Being affixed
to the
head, telescopic spectaclesmagnify
the
effects
of
head movement. With tele-scopic spectacles,
the WOR
gain required
for
retinalimage stabilization
is no
longer
1.0, but is
equal
to the
magnification
of
the telescopes. If WOR gain is
insuf-
ficient, large retinal image slip velocities
can
occurwith only
low or
moderate velocities
of
head move-ment. Even physiologic head instability during stand-ing can reduce DVA with telescopic spectacles, as dem-onstrated
for
low vision patients wearing
4X
telescopicspectacles.
18
The magnification
of
involuntary head move-ments produced
by
telescopic spectacles appears
to
have significant impact
on
functional
use of
these
vi-
sual aids spectacles by patients with low vision.
A
retro-spective study
of
telescopic spectacle
use by
low visionpatients identified
a
combination
of
two factors
to be
85%
accurate
in
predicting successful
use of
telescopicspectacles
by
motivated
low
vision patients: sensitivityof visual acuity with telescopes
to
head motion,
and
involuntary head instability (while standing)
in the
pitch axis.
12
This finding
has
been confirmed prospec-tively.
19
Existing data
on DVA
with telescopic specta-cles
are
unsatisfactory
in
many respects, however.
All
studies employed passive head movements
in the
hori-zontal plane
(yaw),
despite
the
recognition that naturalhead movements
are
most challenging
in the
verticalplane
(pitch).
No previous study employing head move-ment with telescopic spectacles
has
related
DVA to
actual eye
or
retinal slip velocity during viewing,
so the
role
of
retinal slip
has
only been presumed
to
corre-spond
to the
literature obtained using moving opto-
types.
Even
the
existing data relating retinal image
mo-
tion
to
DVA were obtained under conditions
not rep-
resentative of those encountered by low vision patientsusing telescopic spectacles. Reading employed
Lan-
doldt ring optotypes undergoing constant velocityramp motions
of
brief duration.
35
The
study
of
Westheimer
and
McKee presented moving verniers
or
Landoldt ring optotypes
so
briefly that tracking
eye
movements were impossible.
20
The
elegant studies
of
Brown employed simultaneous
eye
movement record-ing during viewing
of
single Landoldt ring opto-
types,
2122
whereas Murphy employed variable contrastgratings repetitively alternating direction
at
constantspeed.
8
In
distinction
to
these laboratory conditions,visually impaired patients making daily
use of
tele-scopic spectacles must deal with retinal image motionproduced
by
substantially repetitive head movementsof varying velocities, produced
by
tremor, transmittedheartbeat,
and
environmental perturbations.
14
Pa-
tients
may
freely choose
the
duration
of
scrutiny.
Al-
phabetic letters, arranged
in
lines,
are the
commonoptotypes
for
clinical
low
vision testing
and
corre-spond
to
functional reading tasks, whereas Landoltring optotypes have practical drawbacks
for
clinical
use.
23
Existing data concerning
DVA in
normal
sub-
jects
and
low vision patients using telescopic spectaclesemployed rows
of
letter optotypes presented
for ex-
tended periods during repetitive, sinusoidal, horizon-tal head motion.
1219
'
24
Since previous studies
of
DVA with telescopic spectacles presented optotypesthrough
the
entire sinusoidal cycle
of
head motion,
a
variety
of
ocular motor strategies might have been
em-
ployed
to
avoid retinal image slip. Such strategiesmight include viewing during
the
low velocity portionsof
the
waveform,
12
as is the
case
for
foveation strate-gies
of
patients with congenital nystagmus.
25
Practicaldesign considerations, particularly weight limitations,dictate that
the
field
of
view
of
telescopic spectaclesgenerally decreases
as
magnification
is
increased. This
 
1896Investigative Ophthalmology
&
Visual Science, May 1993, Vol. 34, No. 6
implies that eye movement strategies might vary fromone telescopic spectacle power to another, whichmight also influence retinal image stability and DVAduring head motion. Thus, actual retinal image slipcannot be confidently estimated in the absence of eyeand head movement measurements under the viewingconditions employed.The aim of the current study
was
thus to character-
ize,
in young, normally sighted subjects, the effect onDVA of imposed vertical head motion using telescopicspectacles of various optical powers. For comparisonwith previous studies of DVA with telescopic specta-cles during horizontal head motion, letter optotypesand sinusoidal waveforms were chosen.
1219
-
24
A fur-ther goal was to relate DVA during head motion withtelescopic spectacles to actual retinal slip, the velocityerror of images on the retina, and to compare this todata from the literature. To make comparison withprevious studies easier, confirmatory measurementsof DVA were also made under comparable conditionsin the same subjects during vertical movement of op-totypes with the head stationary. These studies of DVAwith telescopic spectacles in young, normal subjectswere intended to provide normative data for contem-plated subsequent evaluations of the effects of aging,visual impairment, and neurologic disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Thirteen young adult, paid volunteers gave written in-formed consent according to a protocol conformingto the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and ap-proved by the Human Subject Protection Committeeat the University of California at Los Angeles. All whoparticipated in the study underwent ophthalmologicexamination by one of the authors, and had visualacuities in each eye correctable to 20/20 or better us-ing standard clinical optotype presentations. Averageage of subjects was 30 ± 6 years (mean ± SD, range
19-40);
both men and women were represented.The host computer for these experiments was aMacintosh II (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA)equipped with 16-channel analog-to-digital converter,6-channel synchronous digital-to-analog converter(DAC), and direct memory access devices (National In-struments, Austin, TX). Custom software was writtenfor these experiments using the Lab View laboratorysoftware package (National Instruments).Visual acuities were measured using single rows offive white Sloan letters optically projected at
98%
con-trast and approximately 100 fL luminance against ablack background on a matte white screen measuring2.4 m
2
and located 3 m from the subjects' eyes. Theroom was otherwise dark. The content of each row wasbalanced for equal difficulty,
23
and the projector(Mast Development Company, Davenport, IA) wascontrolled by the computer to rotate among three setsof letters for each optotype size to prevent memoriza-tion. Optotype size varied from line to line by 20%,representing
a
logarithmic change in the minimum an-gle resolvable (logMAR) of approximately 0.1 unit.Optotypes ranged in size from —0.7 (20/4 Snellen)through 1.7 logMAR (20/1000). For the optotypeslarger than 1.0 logMAR (20/200), fewer than five let-ters were presented per line, due to limitations in thesize of the transparencies in the projector. Subjects'responses were monitored using an intercom, andwere recorded on the audio channel of the data re-corder during trials when simultaneous eye movementrecording was performed. Threshold acuity was de-fined as the smallest optotype size for which the major-ity of letters were correctly identified in correct se-quence. If any errors occurred on a
line,
threshold wasspecified as 0.05 log unit greater than for all letterscorrect on that line.
24
The optotype projector beam was deflected froma front surface mirror mounted on a high perfor-mance, temperature-compensated, position feedbackgalvanometer (General Scanning, Watertown, MA)that pivoted about the horizontal axis. The servodriver of the galvanometer was optimized for mini-mum deflection time, and was under computer con-trol by a synchronous DAC. This permitted the com-puter to control the vertical position of optotypes asprojected on the screen. The projection beam alsopassed through a large aperture that ordinarily did notinterfere with the beam, but which completely oc-cluded the beam when a maximum deflection com-mand was provided to the mirror galvanometer. Usingthis arrangement, optotypes could be moved sinusoi-dally in the vertical plane at chosen frequencies andamplitudes, but could also be extinguished (blanked)by the abrupt deflection of the beam beyond the aper-
ture.
In the current experiments employing sinusoidaloptotype and head motion, the optotypes were extin-guished for 50% of each cycle (50% dwell), centeredabout the minimum velocity portions of each half cycle(Fig. 1). This permitted viewing when optotypes wereat or near the straight ahead position, which is alsowhen optotype or head velocity was greatest.For acuity measurement, subjects were seated in acustom-made swing rotator pivoting about the inter-aural axis. Their heads were
 firmly
 strapped to a head-rest on the rotator, and their legs and bodies werecomfortably secured to the rotator using harnessesand
belts.
The rotator
was
driven by a servomotor (108
ft-lb,
4.5 kW, Inland Motors, Radford, VA) with a cus-tom-designed position feedback servo under com-puter control via a synchronous DAC. This permittedsinusoidal rotation of the subject's head and body atpeak velocities of up to 40°/sec, synchronized withoptotype motion. Pairs of magnetic field generator

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->