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Introduction
Preliminaries
The Real Numbers
2.1 The Number Line And Algebra Of The Real Num-
2.2 Exercises
2.3 Order
2.3.1 Set Notation
2.5 Exercises
2.6 The Absolute Value
2.7 Exercises
2.8. WELL ORDERING PRINCIPLE AND ARCHIMEDIAN PROPERTY 27
2.8 Well Ordering Principle And Archimedian Prop-
2.9 Exercises
2.10. DIVISIBILITY AND THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC 33
2.10 Divisibility And The Fundamental Theorem Of Arith-
2.11 Exercises
2.12 Systems Of Equations
2.13 Exercises
2.14 Completeness of R
2.15 Review Exercises
3.1 Similar Triangles And Pythagorean Theorem
3.2. CARTESIAN COORDINATES AND STRAIGHT LINES 49
3.2 Cartesian Coordinates And Straight Lines
3.3 Exercises
3.4 Distance Formula And Trigonometric Functions
3.5. THE CIRCULAR ARC SUBTENDED BY AN ANGLE 55
3.5 The Circular Arc Subtended By An Angle
3.6 The Trigonometric Functions
3.7 Exercises
3.8 Some Basic Area Formulas
3.8.1 Areas Of Triangles And Parallelograms
3.8.2 The Area Of A Circular Sector
3.9 Exercises
3.10 Parabolas, Ellipses, and Hyperbolas
3.10.1 The Parabola
3.10.2 The Ellipse
3.10.3 The Hyperbola
3.11 Exercises
The Complex Numbers
4.1 Exercises
Functions Of One Variable
Functions
5.1 General Considerations
5.2 Exercises
5.3 Continuous Functions
5.4 Suﬃcient Conditions For Continuity
5.5 Continuity Of Circular Functions
5.6 Exercises
5.7 Properties Of Continuous Functions
5.8 Exercises
5.9 Limits Of A Function
5.12 Exercises
5.13 Uniform Continuity
5.14 Exercises
Derivatives
6.1 Velocity
6.2 The Derivative
6.10 Curve Sketching
6.11 Exercises
7.1 The Circular Functions
7.2 Exercises
7.3 The Exponential And Log Functions
7.3.1 The Rules Of Exponents
7.3.2 The Exponential Functions, A Wild Assumption
7.3.3 The Special Number, e
7.3.4 The Function ln|x|
7.3.5 Logarithm Functions
7.4 Exercises
8.1 The Chain Rule And Derivatives Of Inverse Func-
8.1.1 The Chain Rule
8.1.2 Implicit Diﬀerentiation And Derivatives Of Inverse Functions
8.2 Exercises
8.3.1 Logarithmic Diﬀerentiation
8.4 Exercises
8.5 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions
8.6. THE HYPERBOLIC AND INVERSE HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS 159
8.6 The Hyperbolic And Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
8.7 Exercises
8.8 L’Hˆopital’s Rule
8.8.1 Interest Compounded Continuously
8.9 Exercises
8.10 Related Rates
8.11 Exercises
8.12 The Derivative And Optimization
8.13 Exercises
8.14 The Newton Raphson Method
8.15 Exercises
9.1 Initial Value Problems
9.2 Areas
9.3 Area Between Graphs
9.4 Exercises
9.5 The Method Of Substitution
9.6 Exercises
9.7 Integration By Parts
9.8 Exercises
9.9 Trig. Substitutions
9.10 Exercises
9.11 Partial Fractions
9.12 Rational Functions Of Trig. Functions
9.13 Exercises
9.14. PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR ANTIDERIVATIVES 203
9.14 Practice Problems For Antiderivatives
9.15 Volumes
9.16 Exercises
9.17 Lengths And Areas Of Surfaces Of Revolution
9.18 Exercises
9.19 The Equation y + ay = 0
9.20 Exercises
9.21 Force On A Dam And Work Of A Pump
9.22 Exercises
10.1 Upper And Lower Sums
10.2 Exercises
10.3. FUNCTIONS OF RIEMANN INTEGRABLE FUNCTIONS 231
10.3 Functions Of Riemann Integrable Functions
10.4 Properties Of The Integral
10.5. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS 237
10.5 Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus
10.6 Exercises
10.7 Return Of The Wild Assumption
10.8 Exercises
10.9 Techniques Of Integration
10.9.1 The Method Of Substitution
10.9.2 Integration By Parts
10.10 Exercises
10.11 Improper Integrals
10.12 Exercises
Inﬁnite Series
11.1 Approximation By Taylor Polynomials
11.2 Exercises
11.3 Inﬁnite Series Of Numbers
11.3.1 Basic Considerations
11.3.2 More Tests For Convergence
11.3.3 Double Series
11.4 Exercises
11.5 Taylor Series
11.5.1 Operations On Power Series
11.6 Exercises
11.7 Some Other Theorems
Vector Valued Functions
12.1 Algebra in Rn
12.2 Exercises
12.3 Distance in Rn
12.4 Exercises
12.5 Lines in Rn
12.6 Exercises
12.7 Open And Closed Sets
12.8 Exercises
12.9 Vectors
12.10 Exercises
Vector Products
13.1 The Dot Product
13.2. THE GEOMETRIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DOT PRODUCT 313
13.2 The Geometric Signiﬁcance Of The Dot Product
13.2.1 The Angle Between Two Vectors
13.2.2 Work And Projections
13.4.2 Torque
13.4.3 The Box Product
13.5 Exercises
13.6 Vector Identities And Notation
13.7 Exercises
14.1 Exercises
14.2 Continuous Functions
14.2.1 Suﬃcient Conditions For Continuity
14.3 Exercises
14.4 Limits Of A Function
14.5 Exercises
14.6 The Limit Of A Sequence
14.6.1 Sequences And Completeness
14.6.2 Continuity And The Limit Of A Sequence
14.7. PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 343
14.7 Properties Of Continuous Functions
14.8 Exercises
Limits And Derivatives
15.1 Limits Of A Vector Valued Function
15.2 The Derivative And Integral
15.2.1 Geometric And Physical Signiﬁcance Of The Derivative
15.2.2 Diﬀerentiation Rules
15.3 Leibniz’s Notation
15.4 Exercises
15.5 Newton’s Laws Of Motion
15.5.1 Kinetic Energy
15.5.2 Impulse And Momentum
15.6 Exercises
15.7 Systems Of Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations
15.7.1 Picard Iteration
15.7.2 Numerical Methods For Diﬀerential Equations
15.8 Exercises
Line Integrals
16.1 Arc Length And Orientations
16.2 Line Integrals And Work
16.3 Exercises
16.4 Motion On A Space Curve
16.5 Exercises
16.6. INDEPENDENCE OF PARAMETERIZATION 385
16.6 Independence Of Parameterization
The Circular Functions Again
17.1 The Equations Of Undamped And Damped Oscil-
17.2 Exercises
Curvilinear Coordinate Systems
18.1 Polar Cylindrical And Spherical Coordinates
18.2. THE ACCELERATION IN POLAR COORDINATES 399
18.2 The Acceleration In Polar Coordinates
18.3 Planetary Motion
18.4 Exercises
Linear Algebra
19.1 Matrices
19.1.1 Finding The Inverse Of A Matrix
19.2 Exercises
19.3 Linear Transformations
19.3.1 Least Squares Problems
19.3.2 The Least Squares Regression Line
19.3.3 The Fredholm Alternative
19.4 Exercises
19.5 Moving Coordinate Systems
19.5.1 The Coriolis Acceleration
19.5.2 The Coriolis Acceleration On The Rotating Earth
19.6 Exercises
19.7 Determinants
19.8 Exercises
19.9. THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF DETERMINANTS 447
19.9 The Mathematical Theory Of Determinants
19.14 Exercises
Functions Of Many Variables
20.1 The Graph Of A Function Of Two Variables
20.2 The Directional Derivative
20.3 Exercises
20.4 Mixed Partial Derivatives
20.5. THE LIMIT OF A FUNCTION OF MANY VARIABLES 475
20.5 The Limit Of A Function Of Many Variables
20.6 Exercises
20.7 Approximation With A Tangent Plane
20.8 Exercises
20.9 Diﬀerentiation And The Chain Rule
20.9.1 The Chain Rule
20.9.2 Diﬀerentiation And The Derivative
20.10 Exercises
20.12 Exercises
20.13 Nonlinear Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations Local
20.14 Lagrange Multipliers
20.15 Exercises
20.16 Taylor’s Formula For Functions Of Many Vari-
20.16.1 Some Linear Algebra
20.16.2 The Second Derivative Test
20.17 Exercises
The Riemann Integral On Rn
21.1 Methods For Double Integrals
21.2 Exercises
21.3 Methods For Triple Integrals
21.5 Exercises
21.6 Diﬀerent Coordinates
21.8 Exercises
21.9 The Moment Of Inertia
21.9.1 The Spinning Top
21.9.2 Kinetic Energy
21.9.3 Finding The Moment Of Inertia And Center Of Mass
21.10 Exercises
21.11 Theory Of The Riemann Integral
21.11.1 Basic Properties
21.11.2 Iterated Integrals
21.11.3 Some Observations
The Integral On Other Sets
22.2 Exercises
Vector Calculus
23.1 Divergence And Curl Of A Vector Field
23.2 Exercises
23.3 The Divergence Theorem
23.4 Exercises
23.5. SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM 603
23.5 Some Applications Of The Divergence Theorem
23.5.1 Hydrostatic Pressure
23.5.2 Archimedes Law Of Buoyancy
23.5.3 Equations Of Heat And Diﬀusion
23.5.4 Balance Of Mass
23.5.5 Balance Of Momentum
23.5.6 The Wave Equation
23.5.7 A Negative Observation
23.6 Exercises
23.7 Stokes Theorem
23.7.1 Green’s Theorem
23.8 Green’s Theorem Again
23.9 Stoke’s Theorem From Green’s Theorem
23.9.1 Conservative Vector Fields
23.9.2 Maxwell’s Equations And The Wave Equation
23.10 Exercises
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Calculus Applications and Theory

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