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Emergence and Trends in eLearning

Emergence and Trends in eLearning

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Published by Darren Dennstedt

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Published by: Darren Dennstedt on Jul 10, 2012
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10/27/2014

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Emergence Paper Group Panthers
E-Learning: Emergence and Trends
Darren DennstedtJennifer BergeronLaura GoldinThomas Lim
 
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E-Learning: Emergence, andTrends
 
The term e-learning, which has been around for about 15 years, comprisesall forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. TheInformation and communication systems serve as specific media toimplement the learning process. This new concept is becomingincreasingly recognized by educators and the public, however the historybehind e-learning dates back much further.In this report, we outline the evolution of e-learning by highlightingimportant events, defining basic terms, and recognizing influences fromthe last 150 years. Finally, we conclude with the implications of thesetrends and challenges for the professionals and programs in e-learning asthe field continues to evolve.
History of Instructional Design andTechnology
 
There are several phases to the history of technology, education and howthe two have blended. That history begins with the foundation of ateacher, classroom, students and a text or chalkboard. As learning hasevolved and one or all of these aspects may not be present, the field ofinstructional design and technology has grown.
In “A History of Instructional Design and Technology
: Part 1: A History of
Instructional Media” by Robert A. Reiser (1987) he describes several
phases that may be most easily viewed as a progression:Early1900s1920s-1930s1943-19451950s1950s
 – 
 1960s1950s
 – 
19951995-present
 
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School Museums
As an “informal learning environment” museums “can facilitate the
voluntary learning of a variety of cognitive skills such as divergent thinking,critical analysis, better understanding of the past, the complexity of the
natural world and critical environment issues.” Museums take students out
of the classroom setting and still offer an educational experience(Screven, 1993).
Visual Instruction and Instructional Films
Educational films and entertainment films became a part of our 20
th
 century history. Companies like Coronet Instructional Films producededucational clips that targeted specific audiences and specific topicssuch as how to be trustworthy, popular or employable (
CoronetInstructional Films
, n.d.).
Audiovisual Instruction / Radio Instruction
Radio has an advantage of reaching learners on the move (
 MediaComparison
, 2011) or learners who are in remote areas unable to tap intovideo (Balding, 2002).
World War II
Thousands of new recruits in the early 1940s needed fast andcomprehensive training. With the funding necessary for such a pressingtask, the military created instructional films, silent filmstrips and instructionalmanuals(
The1940s: Instructional
, n.d.).
Post World War II Developments
After the intensive training methods were used for military forces duringWorld War II, several organizations took a look back to analyze what werethe most effective ways to create learning materials specific to audio andvisual mediums such as television (Reiser, 1987). These studies represent ashift again of becoming learner-focused and of being open to thesuccess of new ways of teaching outside the classroom using developingmedia (Reiser, 1987).
Instructional Television
Television was not widely accepted and did not grow as a learningmedium. It could be that teachers resisted the television, cost wasprohibitive or that television did not have the means to provide theinstruction students required (Reiser, 1987).

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