As an “informal learning environment” museums “can facilitate the
voluntary learning of a variety of cognitive skills such as divergent thinking,critical analysis, better understanding of the past, the complexity of the
natural world and critical environment issues.” Museums take students out
of the classroom setting and still offer an educational experience(Screven, 1993).
Visual Instruction and Instructional Films
Educational films and entertainment films became a part of our 20
century history. Companies like Coronet Instructional Films producededucational clips that targeted specific audiences and specific topicssuch as how to be trustworthy, popular or employable (
Audiovisual Instruction / Radio Instruction
Radio has an advantage of reaching learners on the move (
, 2011) or learners who are in remote areas unable to tap intovideo (Balding, 2002).
World War II
Thousands of new recruits in the early 1940s needed fast andcomprehensive training. With the funding necessary for such a pressingtask, the military created instructional films, silent filmstrips and instructionalmanuals(
Post World War II Developments
After the intensive training methods were used for military forces duringWorld War II, several organizations took a look back to analyze what werethe most effective ways to create learning materials specific to audio andvisual mediums such as television (Reiser, 1987). These studies represent ashift again of becoming learner-focused and of being open to thesuccess of new ways of teaching outside the classroom using developingmedia (Reiser, 1987).
Television was not widely accepted and did not grow as a learningmedium. It could be that teachers resisted the television, cost wasprohibitive or that television did not have the means to provide theinstruction students required (Reiser, 1987).