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JHHD - App Sec 8 - History

JHHD - App Sec 8 - History

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Published by Brian Cummins

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Published by: Brian Cummins on Jul 10, 2012
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NPS Form 10-900-a (Rev. 8/2002) OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5-31-2012)
United States Department of the Interior Put Here
National Park Service
National Register of Historic PlacesContinuation Sheet
 Section number 8 Page 1
 
Jones Home Subdivisions HistoricDistrict
Name of PropertyCuyahoga County, OhioCounty and StateName of multiple listing (if applicable)
The Jones Home Subdivisions Historic District is defined by its distinctive street pattern of relativelywide streets, spacious lots and rear lot line alleys that combined with the Jones Home for Children andits spacious park-like setting to stimulate the development of a turn of the century middle classneighborhood that survives largely intact today. The properties contained within this nominationpossesses architectural significance under Criterion C as a microcosm of well-preserved examples of American architectural styles during its period of significance, from 1872, when the area was firstsubdivided, through World War I, when the area was completely developed. The historic resources of the district are diverse, ranging from large-scale turn-of-the-century residences to smaller vernacularworking class housing to churches. The neighborhood is focused around four streets, which containsome of near west Cleveland's best preserved housing stock. The streets here compare favorably froman architectural standpoint with such Cleveland streets as Archwood Avenue, Franklin Boulevard,Jennings Avenue (West 14th Street) and Bolton (East 89th), all of which have been listed on theNational Register of Historic Places. These streets are significant for their concentrations of turn of thecentury middle class to upper middle class housing stock that survive with a high degree of integrity insettings that accentuate their architecture through relatively spacious lot sizes and historic landscaping.The significance of this neighborhood lies in its overall ambiance, with an occasional individuallandmark such as the Jones Home. The area is an oasis of sorts of larger and better preserved housingstock in the midst of a late nineteenth century working class neighborhood of smaller and less imposinghouses. It is cut off from a similar concentration of historic houses to the south, being nominated as theBrooklyn Centre Historic District, by Interstate 71.The district also contains significance under Criterion A in that it is associated with events that havecontributed to the broad pattern of Cleveland's history. One major event is the growth of a prosperoussecond generation middle class on Cleveland's west side, people who could afford to own relativelyspacious and attractive detached single-family houses. Statistics obtained from U. S. Census recordsshow that the great majority of the early residents of this historic district were second generationAmericans with Central European parents who actually owned these houses, with about half beingmortgaged and half being owned free of encumbrance. This is a significant difference from older innercity neighborhoods where the percentage of first generation immigrants was higher, as were thepercentages of renters versus owners. This neighborhood has a special character in terms of thebackground of its first residents in that they were overwhelmingly of immigrant parents but were alsolargely property owners and not renters.Also of significance under Criterion A is the advent of a systematic streetcar system in the 1880s and1890s such that by 1900 the area was being served by lines along both West 25th and Fulton. Thestreetcar lines probably influenced the layout of the district's street patterns and contributed to itsgrowth. Unlike older neighborhoods closer to Cleveland which were more dependent on horsetransportation in the form of individual carriages, hacks and horse-drawn omnibuses, when thisneighborhood was in its prime, the city had a well-developed electrified streetcar system, serving thedistrict from both ends.The district contains as its centerpiece the Jones Home for Children, a turn of the century ColonialRevival style building that is a major architectural landmark of Cleveland's west side. It stands on a
 
NPS Form 10-900-a (Rev. 8/2002) OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5-31-2012)
United States Department of the Interior Put Here
National Park Service
National Register of Historic PlacesContinuation Sheet
 Section number 8 Page 2
 
Jones Home Subdivisions HistoricDistrict
Name of PropertyCuyahoga County, OhioCounty and StateName of multiple listing (if applicable)
spacious landscaped lot at the eastern end of the district. This three story building is distinguished by itscentral cupola, elaborate entrance portico, modillioned cornices, central Palladian window and elaboratestone trimwork. Newer buildings on the property are set behind the original building and are not highlyvisible. Another prominent landmark in the district is the former Fourth Reformed Church which standsat West 32nd and Woodbridge. This Late Gothic Revival landmark, designed by the architectural firmthat designed Jones Home, is a major visual landmark in the residential district and survives with itsmajor features intact.
 Historical Background 
The area was originally part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, surveyed by the Connecticut LandCompany into part of what became Brooklyn Township in 1818. West 25th Street, earlier known asColumbus Road and later as Pearl Street, had already been established as a major Indian route,following a distinctive ridge overlooking the Cuyahoga River's west bank. This route was by the early1800s a stage coach route to Columbus, hence the name. The area's economy grew as a result of theOhio Canal in the 1820s and 1830s, and experienced its first wave of ethnic migration. The earliestEuro-American landholders in this area were the Brainard family, who settled here in 1812. Within afew years the lands were settled. The lands were developed early in the nineteenth century intofarmsteads, with a row of farms facing onto both sides of West 25th Street. David Jones arrived inBrooklyn Township in 1831 from New Jersey and developed a farm on this site. He also owned lands inParma Township. Originally from Troy, New York, David Jones came here with his wife Cynthia andfamily, including son Carlos Lloyd Jones.In the years before the Civil War, greater Cleveland began its expansion toward the district. In 1854Ohio City was annexed to Cleveland and the city's new southern boundary on the west becameWalworth Run. An area south of Walworth Run along West 25th Street, extending to a point severalblocks south of Clark Avenue was annexed to Cleveland in 1867. That same year, the farm of the lateDavid F. and Cynthia M. Jones was incorporated into Brooklyn village at the northern end of that newlyincorporated settlement. Brooklyn village centered about the intersection of Pearl and Denison south of here and the area north of Mapledale Avenue was still rural at the time of incorporation. By 1868, whenthe Cleveland Leader Printing Company printed a map of the city, the lands along West 25th to a pointsouth of Clark Avenue were already subdivided into residential lots.On June 1, 1872 a plat was entered for the northern portion of the former Jones farm by Julius S.Edwards, with Carlos Jones as one of the signers. This marked the initial development of the districtinto a residential community. By 1874, several houses lined Marvin and Woodbridge avenues. Thefarmstead was subdivided in a series of plats that were recorded later that year and in the next few years.These later small subdivisions, Jones Home Allotment No. 1, Jones Home Subdivision No. 2 and JonesLibrary Association all followed the same plan as the original allotment, with fairly broad streets andspacious lots with alleys in the rear.Carlos Lloyd Jones (1827-1897), the son of David and Cynthia Jones, grew up on the farm on this siteand, after a brief stint as a farm hand, he moved back to Cleveland and went into the business of manufacturing agricultural implements. He made a fortune in that business. Carlos Jones was also
 
NPS Form 10-900-a (Rev. 8/2002) OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5-31-2012)
United States Department of the Interior Put Here
National Park Service
National Register of Historic PlacesContinuation Sheet
 Section number 8 Page 3
 
Jones Home Subdivisions HistoricDistrict
Name of PropertyCuyahoga County, OhioCounty and StateName of multiple listing (if applicable)
actively involved in the development of his parent's farmstead, which he acquired after the death of hismother in 1867, his father having passed away in 1863. In apparent partnership with Julius S. Edwardshe developed the northern part of the farm into a residential subdivision. The central and southernportions were developed according to the same plan later that year and in the following years. Hereserved a good portion of the original farm for the grounds of his residence at 1633 Pearl Street.Two events led Jones to devote his efforts and his remaining land here to what he termed "friendlesschildren". The first was the death of his first wife Delia Brainard Jones in 1853 at age 34. She was adescendant of the family that were the first settlers of Brooklyn Township. The second tragedy was thedeath of his only son, John Marvin Jones, in a boating accident. Whereas Carlos Jones had intended tobequeath his holdings to his son, he and his second wife began planning for the transfer of their propertyinto a children's home.The institution was founded November 5, 1886 as the Jones School and Home for Friendless Childrenand its articles list former U. S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, leading Akron citizen Lewis Miller,Cleveland industrialists Lamson and Sessions and other prominent citizens among the home'sincorporators. The home was first established in the former Jones farmstead and initially housed onlynine children. The frame Italianate style farmhouse was soon moved and expanded with frame wings toprovide space for fifty children. In response to a serious diphtheria epidemic a separate hospitalbuilding was in use by 1894. Carlos Jones died in 1897 and his wife the following year. Under newleadership, the Jones Home board in 1903 erected a new main facility, on the site of the former Jonesfarmstead, which was demolished. It was designed by nationally known architect Sidney R. Badgely, ata cost of $35,000. A donation by John D. Rockefeller helped to fund the project. With an addition in1908, the home had a capacity of about eighty children. As early as 1914 the institution began acooperative relationship with the Cleveland Humane Society and in 1954 began a plan to houseemotionally disturbed children, with a branch of the Cleveland Guidance Center on site. Residentialcottages were added at this time to facilitate this transformation. In 1966 the Jones Home was mergedinto a regional children's services organization and continues to serve as a residential and treatmentcenter for emotionally disturbed youth. In 1968 a cottage was erected on the western part of thegrounds.The development of Jones Home parallels that of the neighborhood. During the late nineteenth century,growth was relatively slow. This area was part of Brooklyn village for over twenty years after its initialsubdivision. In 1894 the district, along with the core of former Brooklyn, was incorporated into the cityof Cleveland. The subsequent establishment of city services such as water, sewer, paved streets,increased police and fire protection and the development of nearby school facilities, all encouraged therapid growth of the district. From a population of over 260,000 in 1890, Cleveland gained an additional120,000 residents by 1900 and almost another 200,000 by 1910. By the start of World War I, all lotswithin this district were completely developed and little new construction has occurred here since thattime.Unlike earlier settlements such as the Tremont or Broadway neighborhoods, the first residents of thisdistrict were not attracted here by a single major industry nor is there disproportionate representation

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