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Theories of Personality and Psychopathology

Theories of Personality and Psychopathology

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Published by: sarguss14 on Jan 09, 2009
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09/14/2012

 
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 
Personality
 Totality of a person
Distinctive, stable pattern
Characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings,behaviors
Makes a person uniqueCharacteristics of Personality
Organized and consistent
Sigmund Freud
Founder of psychoanalysis
2 techniques in conducting psychoanalysis:
o
Free Association
o
Dream Analysis
2 Types of Dream Content
Manifest – consciously remembered
Latent
Mechanism Involved in Dream Work 
Condensation
Displacement
Symbolism
Secondary revision
A. TOPOGRAPHICAL MODEL OF THE MIND
1.Conscious – aware2.Preconscious – readily available for consciousnessif the person concentrates3.Unconscious hidden
B. INSTINT OF DRIVE THEORY 
Drives or instinct
BEHAVIOR
o
Referred to as life instincts
Instincts or drive: motivational forces
o
Libido – sexual component (“I desire”)
o
Ego – non-sexual component
o
Aggressin – aim: destruction
o
Life and death instincts – Eros vs. Thanatos
C. STRUCTURAL MODEL
1.Id – primitive; for pleasure; unconscious2.Ego – reality3.Superego – after the phallic stage; moral andidealistic; conscience rules
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
AREA OF THESKINPLEASUREInfantMouthSucking1-3 y/oAnusHolding/letting go3-4 y/oGenitaliaTouching/rubbingPuberty,Adolescence, Young AdultGenitaliaSexual intercourse
Weaning
1
st
8monthsEarlyweaning
frustrated insuckingOral-passive
Dependent
Retaininterest inORALgratification5-8months“Teething”
bite onanythingOral-aggressive
Life longdesire tobite onthings(gum,pencils)
 Tend to beverballyaggressive,argumentative,sarcastic
Toilet Training
Parents atthe child’smercy
Beg
Sweettalk
PraiseAnalExpulsive
Sloppy
Disorganized
Generousto a faultVery strictparents
Punish
HumiliateAnalretentive
Cruel
Destructive
Superclean
Perfectionist
Dictatorial
Verystubborn
Stingy
Oedipal Crisis
BOYRejected byMOM Threatenedby a verymasculineDadPoor senseof self worth(in terms of sexuality)
Act macho
Act as aladies’manGIRLRejected byDAD Threatenedby a veryfemininemomPoor senseof self worth(in terms of sexuality)
Wall-flower
HYPERfeminineBELLEBOYNot rejectedby MOMDevelopopinion of himself 
Effeminate
No causeto identifywith thefatherGIRLNot rejectedby DADMomrelegated toa servantDaddy’slittleprincess
Vain
Self-centered
Masculine
EGO AND MASTERY DEVELOPMENT
Personal IdentityFailure to resolve adolescent issues
id diffusion orrole confusion
No sense of self 
Confusion about their place in theworld
DEFENSE MECHANISM
- cope with anxiety
Denial – blocking external events from awareness
Distortion - grossly reshaping external reality tosuit inner needs
Projection – “displacement outward”
o
 Tendency to seek your own unacceptabledesires to other people
 
Immature
Acting Out – expressing an unconsciouswish/impulse into action
Blocking – temporarily inhibiting thinking
Hypochondriasis – preoccupation with the fear of contracting or the belief of having a seriousdisease
Introjection – “identification personality”
o
 Taking into your own the characteristicsof someone else
Passive-Aggressive – expressing aggressiontowards other indirectly
o
Eg. Abused wives
Progression – reversion to immature patterns of behavior
Schizoid Fantasy – autistic retreat to resolveconflict or obtain gratification
Somatization – manifest emotional and anxietyinto physical symptoms
Neurotic
Controlling – manage or regulate events tominimize conflicts
Displacement – redirection of an impulse over asub target
Externalization – perceiving in the external worldelements of one’s own personality
Inhibition – consciously renounce some egofunctions
Intellectualization – excessively using intellectualprocess to avoid affective expressional experience
Isolation – involves stripping the emotion from adifficult memory or threatening impulse
Rationalization – cognitive distortion of “the facts”to make an event/impulse less threatening
Dissociation – temporarily but not drasticallymodifying a person’s character
Reaction Formation – behave in a way that isopposite of one’s true feelings
Repression – expel/withhold painful or conflictualthought, impulse, or memory from awareness
Sexualization – endowing an object/function withsexual significance
Mature
Altruism – fulfill own needs vicariously throughother people
Anticipation – realistically planning for future innerdiscomfort
Ascetism – renunciation of needs
o
Ex: monks
Humor – use of comedy
Sublimation – transforming an unacceptableimpulse to socially acceptable and productiveform
Suppression – conscious process of puttingthoughts into the preconscious
ERIKSON
Epigenetic Principle – develop through apredetermined unfolding of our personalities in 8staegs
Stages:
o
 Task - balamce
o
 Time – optimal
o
Management – well: virtue
Not so well: maladpationsmalignancies (+/-)
Trust vs. Mistrust 
ParentsInfantsReliable,adequate TrustMaladaptationUnreliable,inadequateMistrustApprehensive andsuspiciousMalignancy:
Depression
Paranoia
Psychosis
 Autonomy vs. Shame
ParentsChildAllow child toexplore andmanipulateenvironmentAutonomyDevelopself-controland self-esteemMaladaptationImpulsivenessDoes NOTallow childShame andDoubt Thinkscan’tstandaloneLaugh atmistakesMalignancyCompulsivenessPerfectionistFollow rulesregularly
Willpower and Determination
Initiative vs. Guilt 
ParentsChildEncouragechild to tryout newideas togrow upInitiativeTakeresponsibilitiesLearn newthingsMaladaptationRuthlessnessMay step onothers shoesin order toreach goalHarsh andabruptprocessGuiltCapacity formoral judgementMalignancyInhibitionWill not trythings
Courage
Industry vs. Inferiority 
Parent/CommunityChildParentsencourage Teachers carePeers mustacceptIndustryPleasure inplanningand carryingout the planMaladaptationNarrowvirtuosityChildren notallowed tobe childrenHarsh teachersRejecting peersInferioritySense of incompetenceMalignancy
Competency
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Parent/SocietyChildEgoIdKnow whoyou areand howyou’ll fitintosocietyMaladaptationFanaticismRoleconfusionIdentitycrisisMalignancyRepudiation
Fidelity

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