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final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5

final year project Chapter 1,2,3,4,5

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Published by Noraini Rosman

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Noraini Rosman on Jul 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/09/2014

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11 
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction
Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known formsof life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in oceans, 1.7% ingroundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a smallfraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapour, clouds asformed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air, and precipitation. Only2.5% of the Earth's water is fresh water, and 98.8% of that water is in ice andgroundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere,and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained withinbiological bodies and manufactured products. Water on Earth moves continuallythrough the hydrological cycle of evaporation and transpiration, condensation,precipition, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpirationcontribute to the precipitation over land.Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah (PSIS) is the 17th polytechnic that had beenestablished under Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE). It was officiallyoperated on May 16, 2003 and formally was known as Polytechnic Sabak Bernam.The main purpose of Polytechnic is to produce qualified semi-professional studentsfulfill the needs in the working field of public and private sectors as well as to meetthe mission and vision of our nation towards years 2020. There is a man-made lake
 
22 in Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah. This man- made lake is to collect all the runoff water from the surface and drainage to prevent flood occur.Wastewater treatment is one of the important phase in water qualitymanagement and treatment that requires careful investigation, water sampling (oftenover several seasons), and an understanding of the water resource and distributionsystem. All wastewaters are different, it is necessary to work with a team that cancombine comprehensive knowledge with practical experience in the all fieldsespecially in chemistry, biology, hydraulics, mechanical processes or equipment,instrumentation and control, materials handling and plant layout.
 
33 
1.2 Objectives
1.
 
To collect and test water samples from 4 different points.2.
 
To identify the current status of the lake water by using water quality index(WQI) method.3.
 
To analyse and provide suggestions.

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