Straight unmodifiedediblevegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower quality oil can and hasbeen used for this purpose. Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or (morerarely) cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. Vegetable oil can also be used in many olderdiesel engines that do not usecommon railorunit injectionelectronic diesel injection systems. Due to
the design of the combustion chambers inindirect injectionengines, these are the best engines for usewith vegetable oil.
Biogas is the result of anaerobic transformation of organic materials (biocomposable waste, energysubstances) with the help of anaerobic organisms, and when produced it contains methane and carbondioxide. Biogas can be used as the source of electricity and to heat buildings and water. As the fuel itsprimary use is in engine with internal combustion.
Second-generation biofuels share the feature of being produced from lignocellulosicbiomass,enabling the use of lower-cost, non-edible feedstocks, thereby limiting direct food vs. fuelcompetition. Second-generation biofuels can be further classified in terms of the process used toconvert the biomass to fuel: biochemical or thermochemical. Second-generation ethanol or butanolwould be made via biochemical processing, while all other second-generation fuels discussed herewould be made via thermochemical processing.Second-generation thermochemical biofuels(
The process to convert biomass solid raw material into fuel gas or chemical feedstock gas
.) may be less familiar to most reader than second-generationethanol, because there are no first-generation analogs. On the other hand, many second-generationthermochemical fuels are fuels that are already being made commercially from fossil fuels usingprocessing steps that in some cases are identical to those that would be used for biofuel production.These fuels include methanol, refined Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), and dimethyl ether (DME). Mixedalcohols can also be made from fossil fuels, but there is no commercial production today due to theimmature state of some components of systems for producing these.
This type of second generation biofuels can also be produced from synthetic gas that is obtainedfrom biomass. It can be used as the replacement for oil in engine starting because of the high octanenumber. Just like when using bioethanol we should also take into consideration low evaporationpressure, low energy of density and incompatibility with materials in engine. 10
20% of biomethanolmixed with oil can be used in engines without any need for modification. Since biomethanol burns withinvisibly and is highly poisonous, strict safety measures are necessary.
DMF or Dimethylformamide is organic compound with chemical formula (CH
NC(O)H. This colorlessliquid can be mixed with water and most of other organic compounds. It is also often used as thedissolvent in chemical reactions. It is produced by the diethyl amin and carbon monoxide reaction onboth low pressure and the temperature. It is not just used as the fuel, but also in pharmacy, pesticideproduction, production of synthetic fibers and similar It is also believed how DMF can cause cancer andsome birth flaws.
HydroThermalUpgrading (HTU) is technology which transforms wet biomass of animal origin intobiofuels. On temperatures from 300 - 350 °C followed by high pressure biomass is transformed into theorganic compound that contains the mix of carbohydrates. After the process of Catalytic