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Written Reporrt Biofuels

Written Reporrt Biofuels

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10/01/2012

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CEBU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
UNIVERSITY CEBU, CITY 
CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES(CHE 411)
 
VEGETABLE OIL ANDBIOFUELS
Written Report 
Submitted by:
Gaas, Cassandra GiselleLagata, Maria SuzetteAlfaro, Saniel
(BSCHE-III)
Submitted to:
Engr. Concordia Bacalso
Instructor 
 
BIOFUEL
 A biofuel is a type of fuelwhose energy is derived from biologicalcarbon fixation.Biofuels include fuels derived frombiomassconversion, as well assolid biomass,liquid fuelsand variousbiogases.Althoughfossil fuelshave their origin in ancientcarbon fixation,they are not considered biofuels because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very longtime. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such asoil pricehikes,the need for increasedenergy security,concern overgreenhouse gasemissions fromfossil fuels,  and support fromgovernment subsidies. Biofuels are drawing increasing attention worldwide as substitutes for petroleum-derivedtransportation fuels to help address energy cost, energy security and global warming concernsassociated with liquid fossil fuels. The term biofuel is used here to mean any liquid fuel made from plantmaterial that can be used as a substitute for petroleum-derived fuel. Biofuels can include relativelyfamiliar ones, such as ethanol made from sugar cane or diesel-like fuel made from soybean oil, to lessfamiliar fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosicbiomass.
First-generation biofuels
'First-generation' or conventional biofuels are biofuels made from sugar, starch, and vegetable oil.
 
ETHANOL
Ethyl alcohol or ethanol C
2
H
5
OH, is transparent, colorless liquid that has specific taste and characteristicpleasant smell. Ethanol is one of the main compounds of alcohol beverages such as beer, wine andcognac. Because of the low freezing point it is also used as the liquid in thermometers under thetemperatures of -40 °C (-40 °F), and also like antifreeze in cars.Ethanol is mostly concentrated by distillation of diluted dissolve. Ethanol that is used commercially has95% of ethanol and 5% of water. This percentage of water can be removed with the help of certainenzyme in the process of creation of so called "absolute ethanol
BIODIESEL
Biodiesel is the first biofuel that became known to wider audience and is the mostly used biofuel inEurope. It is manufactured from oil or fats with the process of transesterification and its chemicalstructure is very similar to mineral diesel. Oils are mixed with sodium hydroxide and methanol orethanol creating two products, biodiesel and glycerol. Biodiesel can be used in every diesel engine whenmixed with mineral diesel..
 
VEGETABLE OIL
 
Straight unmodifiedediblevegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower quality oil can and hasbeen used for this purpose. Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or (morerarely) cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. Vegetable oil can also be used in many olderdiesel engines that do not usecommon railorunit injectionelectronic diesel injection systems. Due to the design of the combustion chambers inindirect injectionengines, these are the best engines for usewith vegetable oil.
BIOGAS
Biogas is the result of anaerobic transformation of organic materials (biocomposable waste, energysubstances) with the help of anaerobic organisms, and when produced it contains methane and carbondioxide. Biogas can be used as the source of electricity and to heat buildings and water. As the fuel itsprimary use is in engine with internal combustion.
Second-generation biofuels
 Second-generation biofuels share the feature of being produced from lignocellulosicbiomass,enabling the use of lower-cost, non-edible feedstocks, thereby limiting direct food vs. fuelcompetition. Second-generation biofuels can be further classified in terms of the process used toconvert the biomass to fuel: biochemical or thermochemical. Second-generation ethanol or butanolwould be made via biochemical processing, while all other second-generation fuels discussed herewould be made via thermochemical processing.Second-generation thermochemical biofuels(
The process to convert biomass solid raw material into fuel gas or chemical feedstock gas
.) may be less familiar to most reader than second-generationethanol, because there are no first-generation analogs. On the other hand, many second-generationthermochemical fuels are fuels that are already being made commercially from fossil fuels usingprocessing steps that in some cases are identical to those that would be used for biofuel production.These fuels include methanol, refined Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), and dimethyl ether (DME). Mixedalcohols can also be made from fossil fuels, but there is no commercial production today due to theimmature state of some components of systems for producing these.
Thermochemical fuelsBIOMETHANOL
This type of second generation biofuels can also be produced from synthetic gas that is obtainedfrom biomass. It can be used as the replacement for oil in engine starting because of the high octanenumber. Just like when using bioethanol we should also take into consideration low evaporationpressure, low energy of density and incompatibility with materials in engine. 10
 –
20% of biomethanolmixed with oil can be used in engines without any need for modification. Since biomethanol burns withinvisibly and is highly poisonous, strict safety measures are necessary.
DMF 
DMF or Dimethylformamide is organic compound with chemical formula (CH
3
)
2
NC(O)H. This colorlessliquid can be mixed with water and most of other organic compounds. It is also often used as thedissolvent in chemical reactions. It is produced by the diethyl amin and carbon monoxide reaction onboth low pressure and the temperature. It is not just used as the fuel, but also in pharmacy, pesticideproduction, production of synthetic fibers and similar It is also believed how DMF can cause cancer andsome birth flaws.
HTU DIESEL
HydroThermalUpgrading (HTU) is technology which transforms wet biomass of animal origin intobiofuels. On temperatures from 300 - 350 °C followed by high pressure biomass is transformed into theorganic compound that contains the mix of carbohydrates. After the process of Catalytic

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