Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
P. 1
Holland-[The Oxygenation of the Atmosphere and Oceans]_PTRSLB361_2006_13

Holland-[The Oxygenation of the Atmosphere and Oceans]_PTRSLB361_2006_13

Ratings: (0)|Views: 93|Likes:
Published by SpeakerForTheDead

More info:

Published by: SpeakerForTheDead on Jul 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/01/2012

pdf

text

original

 
go`5 ;=*;=01/y~wi*9==6*;1>1$ 0=>(0;3
>6;
9==6
]a`d* Wykj~* Y* ^on* I 
Ac`jy`na G Aoddkjg
Wac oqplcjkw`oj of wac kwho~}acyc kjg onckj~
Ycfcycjnc~
aww}5//y~wi*yopkd~on`cwp}sid`~a`jl*oyl/nojwcjw/>6;/;7<=/0=>*fsdd*awhd.ycdkwcg(syd~
aww}5//y~wi*yopkd~on`cwp}sid`~a`jl*oyl/nojwcjw/>6;/;7<=/0=>*fsdd*awhd.ycf(d`~w(; 
Chk`d kdcyw`jl ~cyv`nc
y`law(akjg noyjcy of wac kyw`ndc oy nd`nbYcnc`vc fycc chk`d kdcyw~ |acj jc| kyw`ndc~n`wc wa`~ kyw`ndc ( ~`lj s} `j wac ioq kw wac wo}
 
lo wo5
]a`d* Wykj~* Y* ^on* I 
Wo ~si~ny`ic wo
oj Esdp ;;$ 9=;9y~wi*yopkd~on`cwp}sid`~a`jl*oylGo|jdokgcg fyoh 
 
Wac oqplcjkw`oj of wac kwho~}acyc kjg onckj~
Ac`jy`na G* Aoddkjg
%
Gc}kywhcjw of Ckywa kjg ]dkjcwkyp ^n`cjnc~$ Akyvkyg Sj`vcy~`wp$ Nkhiy`glc$ HK =9;>1$ S^K
Wac dk~w >*13 Lpy of Ckywa a`~woyp akvc iccj g`v`gcg `jwo ﬋vc ~wklc~* Gsy`jl ~wklc ; !>*13„9*73 Lpyklo !Lk)) wac kwho~}acyc |k~ dkylcdp oy cjw`ycdp kjoq`n$ k~ |cyc wac onckj~$ |`wa wac }o~~`idccqnc}w`oj of oqplcj ok~c~ `j wac ~akddo| onckj~*Gsy`jl ~wklc 9 !9*73„;*13 Lk) kwho~}acy`n oqplcj dcvcd~ yo~c wo vkdsc~ c~w`hkwcg wo akvc iccjicw|ccj =*=9 kjg =*=7 kwh* Wac ~akddo| onckj~ icnkhc h`dgdp oqplcjkwcg$ |a`dc wac gcc} onckj~nojw`jscg kjoq`n*^wklc > !;*13„=*13 Lk) |k~ k}}kycjwdp ykwacy ‑ioy`jl‐* Kwho~}acy`n oqplcj dcvcd~ g`g jow nakjlc~`lj`﬋nkjwdp* Ho~w of wac ~syfknc onckj~ |cyc h`dgdp oqplcjkwcg$ k~ |cyc wac gcc} onckj~*^wklc7!=*13„=*37 Lk)~k|ky`~c`jkwho~}acy`noqplcjwovkdsc~jowhsnadc~~wakj=*9 kwh*Wac~akddo| onckj~ foddo|cg ~s`w$ isw wac gcc} onckj~ |cyc kjoq`n$ kw dck~w gsy`jl wac `jwcj~cJco}yowcyouo`n `nc klc~* Kwho~}acy`n oqplcj dcvcd~ gsy`jl ~wklc 3 !=*37 Lk„}yc~cjw) }yoikidp yo~cwokhkq`hshvkdscof 
nk
=*> kwhgsy`jlwacNkyioj`fcyos~icfoycycwsyj`jlwo`w~}yc~cjwvkdsc*Wac~akddo| onckj~ |cyc oqplcjkwcg$ |a`dc wac oqplcjkw`oj of wac gcc} onckj~ ﬉snwskwcg noj~`gcykidp$}cyak}~ oj ykwacy lcodol`nkddp ~aoyw w`hc(~nkdc~*
Bcp|oyg~5
kwho~}acyc2 onckj~2 oqplcj2 hk~~(`jgc}cjgcjw fyknw`ojkw`oj2 lyckw oq`gkw`oj cvcjw2onckj`n kjoq`n cvcjw~
;* @JWYOGSNW@OJ
Wac iyokg oswd`jc~ of wac oqplcjkw`oj a`~woyp of wackwho~}acyc kjg onckj~ kyc jo| yck~ojkidp |cddbjo|j2 isw wacyc kyc ~w`dd ~`lj`﬋nkjw dknsjkc `j wacycnoyg$ c~}cn`kddp foy wac oqplcjkw`oj of wac onckj~$kjg hkjp of wac }yonc~~c~ wakw |cyc yc~}oj~`idc foy wachkeoy wykj~`w`oj~ `j wac oq`gkw`oj ~wkwc of wac kwho(~}acyc„onckj ~p~wch kyc ~w`dd }ooydp gc﬋jcg* Wa`~}k}cy kwwch}w~ wo ~shhky`uc |akw `~ yck~ojkidp |cddc~wkid`~acg yclkyg`jl wac oqplcjkw`oj of wac kwho~(}acyc kjg onckj~$ wo offcy ~ohc ~sllc~w`oj~ yclkyg`jlwac ~wkwc of wac ~p~wch gsy`jl w`hc }cy`og~ |acj `w~oqplcjkw`oj `~ ~w`dd `j g`~}swc$ kjg wo }yo}o~chcnakj`~h~ foy wac hkeoy oqplcjkw`oj wykj~`w`oj~*^ohc ~cnw`oj~ of wac }k}cy kyc ykwacy ~}cnsdkw`vc$}cyak}~ hoyc ~o wakj `~ |kyykjwcg oy gc~`ykidc$ iswcqns~kidc icnks~c wacp kyc }kyw of k ~n`cjw`﬋ng`~ns~~`oj hccw`jl of wac Yopkd ^on`cwp$ kjg wacycfoyc`jwcjgcg wo cjnosyklc gcikwc ykwacy wakj ~`h}dp wohky~akd wac ncywk`jw`c~ of wac ﬋cdg* Wac }k}cy icl`j~|`wa wac ~wkwc of wac onckj„kwho~}acyc ~p~wch gsy`jlwac gc}o~`w`oj of wac ckyd`c~w bjo|j !hcwk)~cg`hcjw~*Wac iosjgky`c~ of wac ~snnccg`jl ~wklc~ of Ckywaa`~woyp kyc gc﬋jcg ip wac w`hc~ of ~`lj`﬋nkjw nakjlc `jwac ycgoq ~wkwc of wac ~p~wch*
9* ^WKLC ;5 >*13„9*73 Lk
Gsy`jl wac ~cnojg akdf of wac w|cjw`cwa ncjwsypcv`gcjnc fyoh ~cvcykd d`jc~ of `jvc~w`lkw`oj noj﬋yhcgwakw wac oqplcj dcvcd `j wac kwho~}acyc kjg onckj~ |k~vcyp do| gsy`jl wac Kynakckj kjg Ckydp ]kdkco}yowcy(ouo`n !~cc foy `j~wkjncAoddkjg ;007)* Wa`~ nojnds~`oj|k~ noj﬋yhcg kjg cqwcjgcg ip wac g`~novcyp of dkylcgclycc~ofhk~~(`jgc}cjgcjwfyknw`ojkw`oj!H@F)ofwac~sd}asy `~owo}c~ `j ~sd}a`gc~ kjg ~sd}akwc~ `j }yc(9*73 Lpy ~cg`hcjwkyp yonb~* Wac~c hck~sychcjw~`jg`nkwc wakw wac O
9
nojwcjw of wac Kynakckj kwho~(}acyc |k~ lcjcykddp dc~~ wakj
nk
;=
B
3
}yc~cjw kwho~(}acy`n dcvcd !]KD) !9 }*}*h*v*2Bk~w`jl
* 9==;2]kvdov & Bk~w`jl 9==9)* Kw wac w`hc of |y`w`jl$ wacyc `~jo gcfcj~`idc kdwcyjkw`vc wo wa`~ `jwcy}ycwkw`oj of wac}yc(9*73 Lpy H@F(^ ~`ljkd~*F`lsyc ;`~ k ycncjwnoh}`dkw`oj of H@F(^ gkwk* Dkylc H@F(^ vkdsc~ kyc}yc~cjw `j kdd w`hc }cy`og~ }y`oy wo 9*73 Lpy klo !Lk)cqnc}w icw|ccj
nk
9*1 kjg >*= Lk* @j wa`~ w`hc `jwcyvkd$H@F(^ vkdsc~ kyc ~hkdd isw joj(ucyo !\kwkjkic
*9==3)* Wa`~ hkp `jg`nkwc wakw kwho~}acy`n O
9
|k~}yc~cjw`j{skjw`w`c~lyckwcy wakj;=
B
3
]KDicw|ccj
nk
9*1 kjg >*= Lk$ isw cdcvkwcg nojncjwykw`oj~ of owacylk~c~ `j wac kwho~}acyc hkp kd~o akvc gc}yc~~cg wacH@F(^~`ljkdgsy`jlwa`~}cy`og*@fO
9
|k~}yc~cjw`jwackwho~}acyc$ `w~ nojncjwykw`oj |k~ woo do| !dc~~ wakj
nk
;=
B
>
kwh) wo ic ycl`~wcycg ip owacy$ dc~~(~cj~`w`vc`jg`nkwoy~ of wac dcvcd of kwho~}acy`n O
9
* Wack}}ckykjnc of cvcj ~hkdd khosjw~ of O
9
`j wac kwho~(}acyc|osdgakvciccjknnoh}kj`cgipkdkylcgcnyck~c`j `w~ NA
7
nojwcjw$ kjg wa`~ gcnyck~c nosdg akvc iccjyc~}oj~`idcfoy wacoj~cw ofwac ckyd`c~w bjo|j`ncklckw9*0 Lk !Posjl
* ;0012Bk~w`jl & Ojo 9==6)* Kdwaoslawa`~nojjcnw`oj`~~sllc~w`vc$`wgoc~jow}yovcwakw O
9
|k~ }yc~cjw `j wac kwho~}acyc kw 9*0 Lk$icnks~c }yonc~~c~owacy wakj k gcnyck~c `j
NA
7
nosdgakvc iccj yc~}oj~`idc foy wac 9*0 Lk `nc klc*Jow k lyckw gckd `~ bjo|j kiosw wac }yc(>*= Lki`o~}acyc* ]aowo~pjwacw`n iknwcy`k kdho~w ncywk`jdp
]a`d* Wykj~* Y* ^on* I
!9==6)
>6;
$ 0=>„0;3go`5;=*;=01/y~wi*9==6*;1>1
]sid`~acg ojd`jc
;0 Hkp 9==6
Ojc nojwy`isw`oj of ;7 wo k G`~ns~~`oj Hccw`jl @~~sc ‑Hkeoy ~wc}~ `jncdd cvodsw`oj‐*
%
aoddkjgMc}~*akyvkyg*cgs
0=>
{
9==6 Wac Yopkd ^on`cwp
 oj Esdp ;;$ 9=;9y~wi*yopkd~on`cwp}sid`~a`jl*oylGo|jdokgcg fyoh 
 
ch}dopcg }aowo~p~wch(@ !]^(@) kjg s~cg A
9
$ A
9
^kjg/oy Fc
9
N
wo ycgsnc NO
9
wo oylkj`n hkwwcy !]`cy~oj;007)* Wac ~`h}dc~w cq}dkjkw`oj foy wac k}}ckykjnc of O
9
`j wac kwho~}acyc kw nojncjwykw`oj~ `j cqnc~~ of 
nk
9 }*}*h* kw
nk
9*73 Lk `~ wakw npkjoiknwcy`k s~`jl}aowo~p~wch(@@ cvodvcg kw wakw w`hc* Ao|cvcy$ wa`~ `~sjd`bcdp* Wac }yc~cjnc of 9
k
(hcwapd ao}kjc~ `j~cg`hcjwkyp yonb~ hoyc wakj 9*< Lpy ~sllc~w~ wakwnpkjoiknwcy`k |cyc `h}oywkjw }y`hkyp }yogsncy~ |cddicfoyc 9*73 Lk !Iyonb~
*9==6)*Gcikwc nojw`jsc~ yclkyg`jlwacklcofwacodgc~wnpkjoiknwcy`k !^nao}f ;007$9==32Iyk~`cy 9==3)$ isw `w`~d`bcdpwakwwacp|cyc}yc~cjwkwdck~w>== Hpyicfoycwac cjg of wac dkylc H@F(^ ~`ljkd~*F`lsyc 9~ao|~ k dkylc noh}`dkw`oj of gkwk foy wac`~owo}`n noh}o~`w`oj of nkyioj `j d`hc~wojc~$ godo(h`wc~ kjg nkdn`w`n fo~~`d~ !^a`cdg~ & Vc`ucy 9==9)*Kdwaosla wacyc `~ k noj~`gcykidc khosjw of ~nkwwcy `j
g
;>
N kw kjp l`vcj w`hc$ wac gkwk~cw k~ k |aodc nkj icg`v`gcg `jwo ~clhcjw~ |acyc wac
g
;>
N of hky`jcnkyiojkwc~ |k~ ndo~c wo =‽ kjg ~clhcjw~ |acyc dkylccqnsy~`oj~ onnsy* Gsy`jl wac ﬋y~w wp}c of ~clhcjw wackwho~}acyc„onckj„nys~w ~p~wch |k~ k}}kycjwdp kw oyndo~c wo ~wckgp ~wkwc* @f$ k~ ~cch~ d`bcdp$ wac
g
;>
N vkdscof NO
9
`jecnwcg `jwo wac kwho~}acyc fyoh hkjwdcgclk~~`jl ak~ iccj ndo~c wo
B
3‽ gsy`jl hsna of Ckywa a`~woyp$ ~clhcjw~ of w`hc gsy`jl |a`na wac
g
;>
Nvkdsc of hky`jc nkyiojkwc~ |k~ ndo~c wo =‽ |cyc}cy`og~ gsy`jl |a`na wac gc}o~`w`oj of oylkj`n hkwwcygyovcwac
g
;>
N vkdsc of ~ck|kwcy wo
nk
=‽* Wac
g
;>
N of oylkj`n hkwwcy isy`cg |`wa ~cg`hcjw~ ak~ iccj ~ohc(|akw vky`kidc iowa `j w`hc kjg ~}knc*Akpc~ !;007)ak~~ao|j wakw k loog gckd of Kynakckj oylkj`n hkwwcy akg
g
;>
N vkdsc~ icw|ccj
B
>= kjg
B
7=‽* @f oylkj`nhkwwcy kjg nkyiojkwc h`jcykd~ |cyc wac ojdp `h}oywkjw~`jb~ of vodnkj`n kjg apgyowacyhkd nkyioj$ yosladp;7# of wac gclk~~cg nkyioj |k~ nojvcywcg wo oylkj`nhkwwcy gsy`jl wac Kynakckj2 wac yc~w icnkhc }kyw of nkyiojkwc ~cg`hcjw~* Wac~c }cyncjwklc~ kyc noj~`~wcjw|`wa wac ychovkd of ho~w oy kdd of wac vodnkj`n A
9
fyohwac kwho~}acyc v`k wac ovcykdd ycknw`oj !Aoddkjg 9==9)9A
9
N
NO
9
/
N
oyl
N
9A
9
O
5
ý
9
5
;
Ú
Wa`~ yc~sdw ~sllc~w~ wakw ~wckgp ~wkwc gsy`jl hsna$ `f jow kdd$ of wac Kynakckj |k~ kna`cvcg |a`dc wackwho~}acyc nojwk`jcg jo oy c~~cjw`kddp jo O
9
* WacO
9
lcjcykwcg ip npkjoiknwcy`k s~`jl }aowo~p~wch(@@|k~ k}}kycjwdp `j~sf﬋n`cjw wo osw|c`la wac ycgsn`jlcffcnw of A
9
kjg owacy ycgsnwkjw~ oj wac kwho~}acyc„ onckj ~p~wch*Wac {skjw`wp of oylkj`n hkwwcy isy`cg gsy`jl kjpl`vcj }cy`og of Ckywa a`~woyp ak~ iccj wac g`ffcycjncicw|ccj wac {skjw`wp of oylkj`n hkwwcy lcjcykwcg kjgwac{skjw`wpofoylkj`nhkwwcygc~wyopcg }y`oy woisy`kd*Wogkp wac {skjw`wp of oylkj`n hkwwcy wakw `~ isy`cg `~noj~`gcykidp dc~~ wakj ;# of wac {skjw`wp of oylkj`nhkwwcy wakw `~ lcjcykwcg* @w `~ d`bcdp wakw wa`~ }cyncjwklc|k~ ~ohc|akw dkylcy gsy`jl wac Kynakckj$ ~`jncoqplcj`n gclykgkw`oj of oylkj`n hkwwcy `~ ~o yk}`g2isw wac {skjw`wp of oylkj`n hkwwcy isy`cg |k~ kdho~wncywk`jdp hsna ~hkddcy wakj wac {skjw`wp wakw |k~lcjcykwcg* Wacj$ k~ jo|$ wac yodc of wac lcjcykw`oj kjgwacykwcofgc~wysnw`ojofoylkj`nhkwwcyiowagc}cjgcgoj wac ycgoq ~wkwc of wac kwho~}acyc„onckj ~p~wch*Wac ykwc of oylkj`n hkwwcy lcjcykw`oj ip ]^(@oylkj`~h~ |k~ }yoikidp d`h`wcg ip wac kvk`dki`d`wp of A
9
$ A
9
^ kjg Fc
9
N
`j wac }aow`n uojc* Wac ykwc of lcjcykw`oj of oylkj`n hkwwcy ip npkjoiknwcy`k |k~}yoikidp d`h`wcg ip wac {skjw`wp of jswy`cjw~ ychk`j`jlkfwcy wac`y gc}dcw`oj ip ]^(@ oylkj`~h~* @w ~cch~ d`bcdpwakw }ao~}akwc |k~ s~skddp d`h`w`jl$ ~`jnc j`wyolcj(﬋q`jl oylkj`~h~ cq`~wcg$ kjg gcj`wy`﬋nkw`oj |k~d`h`wcg `j k dkylcdp kjoq`n onckj* Wac gc~wysnw`oj of oylkj`n hkwwcy |k~ }yoikidp goh`jkwcg ip hcwakjo(lcjc~`~ kjg ^O
79
B
ycgsnw`oj* @j wac ki~cjnc of {skjw`wkw`vc gkwk foy wac ykwc of wac~c }yonc~~c~ gsy`jlwac Kynakckj$ `w ~cch~ }ychkwsyc wo noj~wysnw{skjw`wkw`vc hogcd~ wo gc﬋jc wac ycgoq ~wkwc of wackwho~}acyc„onckj ~p~wch* Kdd wakw nkj ic ~k`g |`wa~ohc k~~sykjnc `~ wakw ~wckgp ~wkwc gsy`jl hsna$ `f jowkdd of wac Kynakckj |k~ hk`jwk`jcg |`waosw waccjakjn`jl cffcnw of kwho~}acy`n O
9
oj wac gcnoh}o(~`w`oj ykwc of oylkj`n hkwwcy*Wac gcc}cy onckj~ |cyc kdho~w ncywk`jdp kjoq`n iswjow csq`j`n gsy`jl wac Kynakckj* Wa`~ `~ `jg`nkwcg ho~wndckydp ip wac |`gc~}yckg onnsyycjnc of oq`gc fkn`c~ikjgcg`yojfoyhkw`oj!I@F2﬋lsyc>)*Waconnsyycjncof dkylc hky`jc hkjlkjc~c gc}o~`w~ !﬋lsyc 7kjgwkidc ;) gsy`jl wac Kynakckj kdho~w ncywk`jdp gchkjg~ wac}yc~cjnc of ycgsn`jl nojg`w`oj~ `j wac gcc}cy onckj~$|acyc Hj
9
N
|k~ kidc wo knnshsdkwc$ s}|cdd `jwo wac~akddo|onckj~$kjgic}ycn`}`wkwcgwacyck~knoj~w`wscjwofHjnkyiojkwc~kjg/oyHjoq`gc~!Yop;00<)*Hsnaof wac~akddo|onckj|k~}yoikidpkjoq`nk~|cdd*Ao|cvcy$wacyc `~ ~ohc i`ohkybcy cv`gcjnc foy wac }yc~cjnc of oqplcj ok~c~ |acyc wac ykwc of oqplcj }yogsnw`oj ipnpkjoiknwcy`k osw|c`lacg wac go|j|kyg h`q`jl of ycgsncg lk~c~ fyoh wac kwho~}acyc*Wacyc kyc jo bjo|j Kynakckj }ao~}aoy`wc gc}o~`w~!Noob & ^acylodg ;016)* Dkwcy cyo~`oj of ~snagc}o~`w~ nkjjow ic ysdcg osw$ isw wac`y cjw`yc ki~cjnc~sllc~w~ wakw ojc oy hoyc of wac `jlycg`cjw~ wakw kycyc{s`ycg foy wac foyhkw`oj of }ao~}aoy`wc~ |cych`~~`jl gsy`jl wac Kynakckj* K d`bcdp nkjg`gkwc `~ wooh`joy k go|j|kyg wykj~}oyw of oylkj`n hkwwcy `jwo wacgcc}cyonckj~*Wogkp
nk
;=#ofwacoylkj`nhkwwcy wakw`~ lcjcykwcg `j wac }aow`n uojc ~`jb~ `jwo wac gcc}cyonckj~ kjg `~ gc~wyopcg wacyc$ dkylcdp ip oqplcj`ngcnoh}o~`w`oj* Wac }ao~}akwc wakw `~ ycdck~cg gsy`jl
;=1679=„97= ;=== 9=== >=== 7===
      ∆
   >   >
   ^   !   #   )
klc !Hpy)~wklc @@@
  ~   w  k  l  c   @   @
~wklc @
F`lsyc ;* Wac vkdsc~ of 
G
>>
^$ `jg`nkwoy of hk~~(`jgc}cjgcjwfyknw`ojkw`oj !H@F) of ~sd}asy `j }py`wc kjg iky`wc gsy`jl wac}k~w 7=== Hpy* Wac gkwk |cyc noh}`dcg ip ^* Ojo fyoh!Fky{saky
0=7 A* G* Aoddkjg
Oqplcjkw`oj of wac kwho~}acyc kjg onckj~
]a`d* Wykj~* Y* ^on* I
!9==6)
 oj Esdp ;;$ 9=;9y~wi*yopkd~on`cwp}sid`~a`jl*oylGo|jdokgcg fyoh 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->