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Microwave Backhaul for Public Safety LTE

Microwave Backhaul for Public Safety LTE

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Published by Aviat Networks
Public safety agencies are soon to experience a dramatic improvement in communications capabilities enabled by advances in technology. New broadband multimedia applications will give first responders and commanders alike far better situational awareness, and thereby improve both the effectiveness and safety of all personnel charged with protecting the public.
The specific technology, now mandated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for all new emergency communications networks, is Long Term Evolution, or LTE—a fourth-generation broadband solution. The FCC has also allocated licensed spectrum to ensure the best possible performance in these new networks. These FCC rulings support the goal of achieving an interoperable nationwide network for public safety agencies.
Public safety agencies are soon to experience a dramatic improvement in communications capabilities enabled by advances in technology. New broadband multimedia applications will give first responders and commanders alike far better situational awareness, and thereby improve both the effectiveness and safety of all personnel charged with protecting the public.
The specific technology, now mandated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for all new emergency communications networks, is Long Term Evolution, or LTE—a fourth-generation broadband solution. The FCC has also allocated licensed spectrum to ensure the best possible performance in these new networks. These FCC rulings support the goal of achieving an interoperable nationwide network for public safety agencies.

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Published by: Aviat Networks on Jul 12, 2012
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11/05/2014

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MICROWAVE BACKHAUL FORPUBLIC SAFETY LTE
AVIAT NETWORKS
 
Public saety agencies are soon to experience a dramaticimprovement in communications capabilities enabledby advances in technology. New broadband multimediaapplications will give rst responders and commandersalike ar better situational awareness, and therebyimprove both the eectiveness and saety o all personnelcharged with protecting the public.The specic technology, now mandated by the U.S.Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or allnew emergency communications networks, is LongTerm Evolution, or LTE—a ourth-generation broadbandsolution. The FCC has also allocated licensed spectrumto ensure the best possible perormance in these newnetworks. These FCC rulings support the goal oachieving an interoperable nationwide network or publicsaety agencies.The FCC chose LTE based on its proven ability to supportvoice, video and data communications at remarkablyhigh data rates that were previously only possible withwired links. Although there will be some dierences in anationwide public saety network involving capacity andcoexistence with Land-Mobile Radio communications,lessons learned rom LTE’s deployment in large-scalecommercial mobile operator networks will help ensureachieving the FCC’s goal cost-eectively.This white paper addresses one o the most importantaspects o LTE networks: backhaul. As will be shown,microwave technology is particularly well suited toaddressing the three main challenges involved inbackhauling LTE trac: capacity, reliability and cost. Thepaper also provides valuable recommendations basedon current best practices, including those that maximizelong-term fexibility and aordability.With the recent developments in both spectrum andunding allocations, it has become clear that LTEwill be the uture o public saety communicationsin North America, i not globally. LTE represents anunprecedented opportunity or better communications—more applications, more tools, more real-time videoand data—ultimately arming rst responders with moreinormation and enabling them to be more capable,ecient, sae and secure.Not only is LTE a vast improvement over today’s publicsaety voice-only communications technology, LTEoers three notable advances over the third-generationsolutions now being used in commercial cellularnetworks. The rst is remarkably high data rates—upto 10 times aster than 3G. The second is an ordero magnitude lower latency, which is important orsupporting real-time applications. Third is LTE’s relativelylower cost as a purely digital network.In addition, LTE also oers improved security, reliability,Quality o Service, management and interoperability thatwill be very important in public saety applications.Narrow band Land-Mobile Radio (LMR) communicationshave served public saety agencies well, but its lacko broadband data capabilities makes it unsuited tomeet uture communications needs. LMR has eaturespurpose-built or public saety that are not yet supportedtoday by LTE (such as mission-critical voice, direct modecommunications, etc.), meaning both technologies willcontinue to be used in public saety networks well into theuture. Moreover, as a next-generation technology, LTEis relatively new (even or mobile operators) so it will taketime or public saety agencies to work through the issuesthat accompany this new technology. So, Long TermEvolution is just that: an evolution, over time, to morecapable communications technology.
INTRODUCTIONTHE EVOLUTION TOLONG TERM EVOLUTION
 
3
AVIAT NETWORKS
When compared with LMR, LTE requires more bandwidthand more cell sites, making backhaul more complicatedand more costly. Careul attention must be paid tobackhaul design, thereore, to minimize cost andcomplexity. In addition, because public saety networksare mission-critical, reliability cannot be sacriced tomeet cost and capacity objectives.Because LTE cell sites have three sectors o 120° each,these throughputs are available on each sector. Inaddition, Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) technologywith multiple radios (or streams) can double or evenquadruple these data rates in 2x2 and 4x4 congurations,respectively.While a ull analysis o these considerations is beyondthe scope and intent o this paper, their conservativeapplication to public saety networks yields a theoreticalbackhaul bandwidth requirement o 100 to 150 Mbps or anLTE cell site.It’s important to note however that these rates aretheoretical peak gures when one user, or even a ew,are connected to the cell site. Even though such largebandwidths are not needed or a single user (based onapplication requirements) even in a public saety network,the backhaul planning scenario prescribes connectivity tomultiple users.Nonetheless, capacity planning or IP networks is new topublic saety and ultimately dependent on volume o tracand QoS requirements o each application running on thenetwork. For these reasons, and because trac volumes,and QoS requirements have not been gured out, weexpect the best practices or LTE backhaul capacityplanning in public saety to be an evolving process.
THE NEED FOR SPEED
 
One challenge with LTE is satisying the backhaul capacityneeds and in order to determine the backhaul capacityrequired, it is rst necessary to understand the capacitysupported by the individual cellsites.With all wireless communications, signal strengthdiminishes with distance. LTE utilizes three modulationschemes ¬ - 64QAM (64-state Quadrature AmplitudeModulation), 16QAM (16-state QAM) and QPSK(Quadrature Phase Shit Keying) that produce maximumdownstream throughputs o 43, 28 and 14 Megabits persecond (Mbps), respectively, in the 10 MHz “D-Block”o the 700 MHz spectrum allocated by the FCC orexclusive use in public saety networks. Note that thelower upstream throughput rates o 14, 10 and 5 Mbps,respectively, have less o an eect on sizing backhaulcapacity in the bi-directional, symmetrical links in thebackbone ring.
LTE BACKHAUL CHALLENGES
SINGLE USER DOWN/UP DATA RATEvs. DISTANCE FROM CELL CENTER
CloseMediumFar
17/5.6 Mbps11/3.7 Mbps5.6/1.8 Mbps
43/14.4 Mbps
28/9.5 Mbps14/4.8 Mbps
5MHz Channel BW10MHz Channel BWPublic Safety (FDD)
DOWNSTREAM/UPSTREAM DATA RATES FOR 5 MHZ AND 10 MHZ CHANNELS IN THE 700 MHZ SPECTRUM

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