When compared with LMR, LTE requires more bandwidthand more cell sites, making backhaul more complicatedand more costly. Careul attention must be paid tobackhaul design, thereore, to minimize cost andcomplexity. In addition, because public saety networksare mission-critical, reliability cannot be sacriced tomeet cost and capacity objectives.Because LTE cell sites have three sectors o 120° each,these throughputs are available on each sector. Inaddition, Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) technologywith multiple radios (or streams) can double or evenquadruple these data rates in 2x2 and 4x4 congurations,respectively.While a ull analysis o these considerations is beyondthe scope and intent o this paper, their conservativeapplication to public saety networks yields a theoreticalbackhaul bandwidth requirement o 100 to 150 Mbps or anLTE cell site.It’s important to note however that these rates aretheoretical peak gures when one user, or even a ew,are connected to the cell site. Even though such largebandwidths are not needed or a single user (based onapplication requirements) even in a public saety network,the backhaul planning scenario prescribes connectivity tomultiple users.Nonetheless, capacity planning or IP networks is new topublic saety and ultimately dependent on volume o tracand QoS requirements o each application running on thenetwork. For these reasons, and because trac volumes,and QoS requirements have not been gured out, weexpect the best practices or LTE backhaul capacityplanning in public saety to be an evolving process.
THE NEED FOR SPEED
One challenge with LTE is satisying the backhaul capacityneeds and in order to determine the backhaul capacityrequired, it is rst necessary to understand the capacitysupported by the individual cellsites.With all wireless communications, signal strengthdiminishes with distance. LTE utilizes three modulationschemes ¬ - 64QAM (64-state Quadrature AmplitudeModulation), 16QAM (16-state QAM) and QPSK(Quadrature Phase Shit Keying) that produce maximumdownstream throughputs o 43, 28 and 14 Megabits persecond (Mbps), respectively, in the 10 MHz “D-Block”o the 700 MHz spectrum allocated by the FCC orexclusive use in public saety networks. Note that thelower upstream throughput rates o 14, 10 and 5 Mbps,respectively, have less o an eect on sizing backhaulcapacity in the bi-directional, symmetrical links in thebackbone ring.
LTE BACKHAUL CHALLENGES
SINGLE USER DOWN/UP DATA RATEvs. DISTANCE FROM CELL CENTER
17/5.6 Mbps11/3.7 Mbps5.6/1.8 Mbps
28/9.5 Mbps14/4.8 Mbps
5MHz Channel BW10MHz Channel BWPublic Safety (FDD)
DOWNSTREAM/UPSTREAM DATA RATES FOR 5 MHZ AND 10 MHZ CHANNELS IN THE 700 MHZ SPECTRUM