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Honors Biology Ch. 8 Notes

Honors Biology Ch. 8 Notes



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Published by Chelsey Fowler
Notes taken in Brian Hill\'s 5th period Honors Biology class. Topics include: cell division (mitosis and meiosis), cell division disorders, genetics, cancer
Notes taken in Brian Hill\'s 5th period Honors Biology class. Topics include: cell division (mitosis and meiosis), cell division disorders, genetics, cancer

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Published by: Chelsey Fowler on Jun 11, 2007
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Honors Biology,Period 5Chapter 8 Notes
Section 8.4: Chromosomes Replicate Before Each Cell Division
I. General Terms1. DNA ( Deoxyribonucleic acid) – nucleic acid that stores hereditary information-forms of DNA:A. nucleotideB. geneC. chromosomeD. chromatinE. genome – total collection of genetic information2. Gene – A sequence of nucleotides that encodes traits (trait = physical)**Approximately 30,000 different genes in the human genomeHow many total genes in the nucleus of a somatic cell?60,000 somatic cells are diploid3. Chromosome – A linear structure composed of a set of genes.**A single chromosome may contain anywhere from several hundred toseveral thousand genes except the y chromosome, which only has about 5genes.4. Chromatin – storage form of DNA, where the chromosomes are packaged withstorage proteins called HISTONES.-When in chromatin form, individual chromosomes are not visible, butappear as a dark mass under the microscope.5. Genome – A complete set of genetic information*individual genome*species genome (i.e. the human genome)6. nucleotide – monomers that make up DNA-small organic molecule consisting of a phosphate group, a ribosugar and anitrogenous base7. Gene and AlleleGene – information of a traitExample:-gene for eye color -gene for hair color -gene for cholesterol receptorssmallest broadestGACT science
Allele – different versions of a gene-blue eye color -brown hair II. Chromosome Replication-Before a cell can divide into two daughter cells, it must first make a completecopy of its chromosomes to pass onto new cells
Section 8.8: The Cell Cycle
The Cell Cycle: An ordered sequence of events from the time a cell is first formeduntil its division into two new cellsStages of the Cell CycleThe Cell Cycle consists of two general phases1.Interphase (90%)2.Mitotic Phase (10%)INTERPHASE-growth phase-characterized by high metabolic activity-the cell is performing its normal function-interphase is divided into 3 sub categories:1. G
(first gap) – cell growth2. S Phase – DNA synthesis (DNA is copied)3. G
(second gap) – growth/ preparation*G
and the restriction point- G
– resting phase-restriction point – stage in the cell cycle when the cellevaluates the environment-By the end of G
, the cell has:1. doubled its size2. doubled all of its contents3. DNA appears as chromatin (chromosomes NOT visible)4. centrosomes become visible (centrioles that displayradiating microtubule fibers)
Before S Phase:After S Phase:MITOTIC PHASE-This is the period where the cell actually dividesThe effect:A single diploid cell is split into two genetically and structurally identicaldiploid somatic cells5 stages:1. Prophase2. Prometaphase3. Metaphase4. Anaphase5. Telophase**See figure 8.6PROPHASE-the nucleus disappears-chromatin condenses and chromosomes become visible*each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids joined a centromere-the mitotic spindle begins to develop-centrosomes move towards the poles of the cellPROMETAPHASE-the nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears-centrosomes reach the poles of the cell-kinetochore fibers develop along the centomere of each chromosome-some of the microtubules of the spindle connect with the kinetochore fibersMaternal #1Paternal #1Eye color HTIQchromosomechromosomeHomologous pair sister chromatids

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