A STUDY ON IMPROVED INSTITUTIONAL BIOMASS STOVES
S.C. Bhattacharya, A.H. Md. M. R. Siddique, M. Augustus Leon, H-L. Pham and C.P. Mahandari
Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, ThailandFax No. (662) 524 5439, e-mail: email@example.com
- Realisation that improved cooking stoves (ICS) can relieve pressure on biomass resources led toICS programs in most developing countries of the world. Most of the ICS programs are directed towardsdevelopment of improved household cooking stoves, while relatively less work has been done on developmentof bigger stoves that could be used in institutional kitchens or certain traditional rural cottage industries. Threedifferent designs of such stoves, using biomass briquettes as fuel, have been studied:
The experimental study was within the framework of a regionalresearch and dissemination programme, 'Renewable EnergyTechnologies in Asia', funded by the Swedish InternationalDevelopment Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the mainobjectives of the project was to design, fabricate and testimproved biomass briquette burning stoves suitable forinstitutional kitchens or traditional cottage industries.Several institutional stoves were designed, fabricated and testedto evaluate their performances. While designing, main attentionwas focused on utilization of briquettes as fuel and to get cleancombustion. Both ricehusk and sawdust briquettes were used asfuel. Testing on the stoves were carried out to determine overallefficiency using water boiling test and to observe generaloperational features, e.g. smoking, ease of start-up etc.This paper presents descriptions of the experimental stoves andtest procedures as well as results of the study.
2. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND PROCEDURE
The efficiency of a stove is usually defined as the ratio of heattransferred to the cooking medium to heat supplied by fuel. Thestove efficiency could be evaluated by a number of standardmethods such as Constant Heat Output Method, ConstantTemperature Rise Method, Constant Time Method, and WaterBoiling Test (Prasad and Verhaart, 1983). Of these, the WaterBoiling Test appears to be most commonly used; this test methodis used in the present study as well.
2.1 Water boiling test
In a Water Boiling Test, a known quantity of water is heated onthe cookstove. No lid is used to cover the vessel so thatevaporated water freely escapes from the vessel. The quantity of water evaporated after complete burning of the fuel is determinedto calculate the efficiency by using the following formula:m
) + m
= initial mass of water in the cooking vessel, kgc
= specific heat of the water, kJ/kg°Cm
= mass of water evaporated, kgm
= mass of fuel burnedT
= temperature of boiling water, °CT
= initial temperature of water, °CH
= latent heat of evaporation at 100°C and 10
= Calorific value of fuel, kJ/kg
2.2 Apparatus for water boiling test
i) A pan without lid.ii) Thermocouples for measuring the ambient and boilingwater temperature.iii) A digital balance for measuring the weight of fuel, waterand pan.
The fuel and pot to be used in the test were separately weighed.The pot was partially filled up with water and weighed again. Theinitial temperature of water was recorded. The stove was ignitedto initiate heating of the pot. Boiling temperature of water wasrecorded. After burning of the fuel was complete, weight of waterleft on the pot was recorded.
3. BRIQUETTE STOVES
Ricehusk and sawdust briquettes were the main fuels used in thestudy. The briquettes were available in cylindrical shape of about55 - 60 mm diameter, and in 20-30 cm length. These were used inwhole lengths or cut into small pieces of thickness in the range of 20 - 25 mm, as required. The measured properties of thebriquettes are given in Table 1.Table 1: Properties of ricehusk and sawdust briquettesProperty Ricehusk briquetteSawdustbriquetteBulk density, (kg/m
) 522 483Moisture content, % 6.0 7.9Volatile matter, % 57.5 75.1Fixed carbon, % 12.7 15.7Ash, % 20.6 1.3Lower Calorific Value (MJ/kg) 11.7 18.8Three designs of biomass briquette-fired stoves suitable forinstitutional kitchens or cottage industries are studied in this