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IELTS Essay Sample

IELTS Essay Sample

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sample essays of IELTS(sample1-50) 
IELTS Essay Sample
http://ieltshome.com/index.html
 
01.
Wr 
ite a lette
: Want to change courses
D
ea
p
ofesso
Moss:I am Sandy Lee, an unde
rgr 
aduate student of the depa
tment of Elect
ical and Compute
En
g
inee
in
g
. At the be
g
innin
g
of thissemeste
, I
e
g
iste
ed one of you
cou
ses, Af 
ican Lite
atu
e andCultu
e. It is a two-hou
cou
se held on eve
y Thu
sday afte
noon.Yeste
day, I
eceived a notice f 
om my depa
tment that a majo
cou
se,Compute
P
inciple, would be chan
g
ed to Thu
sday afte
noon. Thismajo
cou
se conspicuously influences my c
edits and it is eve
yimpo
tant to me.Unfo
tunately, I can not study you
cou
se thissemeste
.Because of you
 
eputation and my enthusiasm in lite
atu
e, I hope Icould study this cou
se in next semeste
. I also hea
d that anothe
 cou
se of you
s, China Lite
atu
e, is held eve
y F
iday afte
noon. If the
e
g
ist
ation of this cou
se hasnt closed yet, I will be so
g
lad topa
ticipate in you
class.So
rr 
y to bothe
you, you
help will be
gr 
eatly app
eciated.Since
ely you
s,Sandy Lee
02 Schooling and Education
It is commonly believed in United States that school is whe
e people
g
oto
g
et an education. Neve
theless, it has been said that today child
eninte
rr 
upt thei
education to
g
o to school. The distinction betweenschoolin
g
and education implied by this
ema
rk
is impo
tant.Education is much mo
e open-ended and all-inclusive than schoolin
g
.Education
k
nows no bounds. It can ta
k
e place anywhe
e, whethe
inthe showe
o
in the job, whethe
in a
k
itchen o
on a t
acto
. It includesboth the fo
mal lea
nin
g
that ta
k
es place in schools and the wholeunive
se of info
mal lea
nin
g
. The a
g
ents of education can
an
g
e f 
oma
eve
ed
gr 
andpa
ent to the people debatin
g
politics on the
adio, f 
oma child to a distin
g
uished scientist.
W
he
eas schoolin
g
has a ce
tainp
edictability, education quite often p
oduces su
p
ises. A chanceconve
sation with a st
an
g
e
may lead a pe
son to discove
how little is
k
nown of othe
 
eli
g
ions. People a
e en
g
a
g
ed in education f 
om infancyon. Education, then, is a ve
y b
oad, inclusive te
m. It is a lifelon
g
 p
ocess, a p
ocess that sta
ts lon
g
befo
e the sta
t of school, and onethat should be an inte
gr 
al pa
t of ones enti
e life.Schoolin
g
, on the othe
hand, is a specific, fo
malized p
ocess, whose
g
ene
al patte
n va
ies little f 
om one settin
g
to the next. Th
ou
g
hout acount
y, child
en a
rr 
ive at school at app
oximately the same time, ta
k
eassi
g
ned seats, a
e tau
g
ht by an adult, use simila
textboo
k
s, dohomewo
rk
, ta
k
e exams, and so on. The slices of 
eality that a
e to belea
ned, whethe
they a
e the alphabet o
an unde
standin
g
of thewo
rk
in
g
of 
g
ove
nment, have usually been limited by the bounda
ies of the subject bein
g
tau
g
ht. Fo
example, hi
g
h school students
k
now thatthe
e not li
k
ely to find out in thei
classes the t
uth about politicalp
oblems in thei
communities o
what the newest filmma
k
e
s a
eexpe
imentin
g
with. The
e a
e definite conditions su
rr 
oundin
g
thefo
malized p
ocess of schoolin
g
.
03 The Definition of Price
P
ices dete
mine how
esou
ces a
e to be used. They a
e also themeans by which p
oducts and se
vices that a
e in limited supply a
e
ationed amon
g
buye
s. The p
ice system of the United States is acomplex netwo
rk
composed of the p
ices of all the p
oducts bou
g
ht andsold in the economy as well as those of a my
iad of se
vices, includin
g
 labo
, p
ofessional, t
anspo
tation, and public-utility se
vices. Theinte
rr 
elationships of all these p
ices ma
k
e up the system of p
ices. Thep
ice of any pa
ticula
p
oduct o
se
vice is lin
k
ed to a b
oad,complicated system of p
ices in which eve
ythin
g
seems to dependmo
e o
less upon eve
ythin
g
else.If one we
e to as
k
a
gr 
oup of 
andomly selected individuals to definep
ice, many would
eply that p
ice is an amount of money paid by thebuye
to the selle
of a p
oduct o
se
vice o
, in othe
wo
ds that p
ice isthe money values of a p
oduct o
se
vice as a
gr 
eed upon in a ma
rk
ett
ansaction. This definition is, of cou
se, valid as fa
as it
g
oes. Fo
acomplete unde
standin
g
of a p
ice in any pa
ticula
t
ansaction, muchmo
e than the amount of money involved must be
k
nown. Both thebuye
and the selle
should be familia
with not only the money amount,but with the amount and quality of the p
oduct o
se
vice to beexchan
g
ed, the time and place at which the exchan
g
e will ta
k
e placeand payment will be made, the fo
m of money to be used, the c
editte
ms anddiscounts that apply to the t
ansaction,
g
ua
antees on the p
oduct o
 se
vice, delive
y te
ms,
etu
n p
ivile
g
es, and othe
facto
s. In othe
 wo
ds, both buye
and selle
should be fully awa
e of all the facto
s thatcomp
ise the total pac
k
a
g
e bein
g
exchan
g
ed fo
the as
k
ed-fo
amountof money in o
de
that they may evaluate a
g
iven p
ice.
04 Electricity
The mode
n a
g
e is an a
g
e of elect
icity. People a
e so used to elect
icli
g
hts,
adio, televisions, and telephones that it is ha
d to ima
g
ine whatlife would be li
k
e without them.
W
hen the
e is a powe
failu
e, people
gr 
ope about in flic
k
e
in
g
candleli
g
ht, ca
s hesitate in the st
eetsbecause the
e a
e no t
affic li
g
hts to
g
uide them, and food spoils insilent
ef 
i
g
e
ato
s.Yet, people be
g
an to unde
stand how elect
icity wo
rk
s only a little mo
ethan two centu
ies a
g
o. Natu
e has appa
ently been expe
imentin
g
inthis field fo
million of yea
s. Scientists a
e discove
in
g
mo
e and mo
ethat the livin
g
wo
ld may hold many inte
estin
g
sec
ets of elect
icity thatcould benefit humanity. All livin
g
cell send out tiny pulses of elect
icity. As the hea
t beats, itsends out pulses of 
eco
d; they fo
m an elect
oca
dio
gr 
am, which adocto
can study to dete
mine how well the hea
t is wo
rk
in
g
. The b
ain,too, sends out b
ain waves of elect
icity, which can be
eco
ded in anelect
oencephalo
gr 
am. The elect
ic cu
rr 
ents
g
ene
ated by most livin
g
 cells a
e ext
emely small - often so small that sensitive inst
uments a
eneeded to
eco
d them. But in some animals, ce
tain muscle cells havebecome so specialized as elect
ical
g
ene
ato
s that they do not wo
rk
 as muscle cells at all.
W
hen la
rg
e numbe
s of these cell a
e lin
k
edto
g
ethe
, the effects can be astonishin
g
.The elect
ic eel is an amazin
g
sto
a
g
e batte
y. It can seed a jolt of asmuch as ei
g
ht hund
ed volts of elect
icity th
ou
g
h the wate
in which itlive. ( An elect
ic house cu
rr 
ent is only one hund
ed twenty volts.) Asmany as fou
-fifths of all the cells in the elect
ic eels body a
especialized fo
 
g
ene
atin
g
elect
icity, and the st
en
g
th of the shoc
k
itcan delive
co
rr 
esponds
ou
g
hly to len
g
th of its body.
05 The Beginning of Drama
The
e a
e many theo
ies about the be
g
innin
g
of d
ama in ancientG
eece. The on most widely accepted today is based on theassumption that d
ama evolved f 
om
itual. The a
rg
ument fo
this view
g
oes as follows. In the be
g
innin
g
, human bein
g
s viewed the natu
alfo
ces of the wo
ld-even the seasonal chan
g
es-as unp
edictable, andthey sou
g
ht th
ou
g
h va
ious means to cont
ol these un
k
nown andfea
ed powe
s. Those measu
es which appea
ed to b
in
g
the desi
ed
esults we
e then
etained and
epeateduntil they ha
dened into fixed
ituals. Eventually sto
ies a
ose whichexplained o
veiled the myste
ies of the
ites. As time passed some
ituals we
e abandoned, but the sto
ies, late
called myths, pe
sistedand p
ovided mate
ial fo
a
t and d
ama.
 
Those who believe that d
ama evolved out of 
itual also a
rg
ue thatthose
ites contained the seed of theate
because music, dance,mas
k
s, and costumes we
e almost always used, Fu
the
mo
e, asuitable site had to be p
ovided fo
pe
fo
mances and when the enti
ecommunity did not pa
ticipate, a clea
division was usually madebetween the "actin
g
a
ea" and the "audito
ium." In addition, the
e we
epe
fo
me
s, and, since conside
able impo
tance was attached toavoidin
g
mista
k
es in the enactment of 
ites,
eli
g
ious leade
s usuallyassumed that tas
k
.
W
ea
in
g
mas
k
s and costumes, they oftenimpe
sonated othe
people, animals, o
supe
natu
al bein
g
s, andmimed the desi
ed effect-success in hunt o
battle, the comin
g
 
ain, the
evival of the Sun-as an acto
mi
g
ht. Eventually such d
amatic
ep
esentations we
e sepa
ated f 
om
eli
g
ious activities. Anothe
theo
y t
aces the theate
r'
s o
i
g
in f 
om the human inte
est insto
ytellin
g
. Acco
din
g
to this vies tales (about the hunt, wa
, o
othe
 feats) a
e
gr 
adually elabo
ated, at fi
st th
ou
g
h the use of impe
sonation, action, and dialo
g
ue by a na
rr 
ato
and then th
ou
g
h theassumption of each of the
oles by a diffe
ent pe
son. A closely
elatedtheo
y t
aces theate
to those dances that a
e p
ima
ily
hythmical and
g
ymnastic o
that a
e imitations of animal movements and sounds.
06 Television
Television-----the most pe
vasive and pe
suasive of mode
ntechnolo
g
ies, ma
rk
ed by
apid chan
g
e and
gr 
owth-is movin
g
into a newe
a, an e
a of ext
ao
dina
y sophistication and ve
satility, whichp
omises to
eshape ou
lives and ou
wo
ld. It is an elect
onic
evolution of so
ts, made possible by the ma
rr 
ia
g
e of television andcompute
technolo
g
ies.The wo
d "television", de
ived f 
om its G
ee
k
(tele: distant) and Latin(visio: si
g
ht)
oots, can lite
ally be inte
p
eted as si
g
ht f 
om adistance. Ve
y simply put, it wo
rk
s in this way: th
ou
g
h a sophisticatedsystem of elect
onics, television p
ovides the capability of conve
tin
g
 an ima
g
e (focused on a special photoconductive plate within a came
a)into elect
onic impulses, which can be sent th
ou
g
h a wi
e o
cable.These impulses, when fed into a
eceive
(television set), can then beelect
onically
econstituted into that same ima
g
e.Television is mo
e than just an elect
onic system, howeve
. It is ameans of exp
ession, as well as a vehicle fo
communication, and assuch becomes a powe
ful tool fo
 
eachin
g
othe
human bein
g
s.The field of television can be divided into two cate
g
o
ies dete
mined byits means of t
ansmission. Fi
st, the
e is b
oadcast television, which
eaches the masses th
ou
g
h b
oad-based ai
wave t
ansmission of television si
g
nals. Second, the
e is nonb
oadcast television, whichp
ovides fo
the needs of individuals o
specific inte
est
gr 
oups th
ou
g
hcont
olled t
ansmission techniques.T
aditionally, television has been a medium of the masses.
W
e a
emost familia
with b
oadcast television because it has been with us fo
 about thi
ty-seven yea
s in a fo
m simila
to what exists today.
D
u
in
g
 those yea
s, it has been cont
olled, fo
the most pa
t, by the b
oadcastnetwo
rk
s, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the majo
pu
veyo
s of news, info
mation, and ente
tainment. These
g
iants of b
oadcastin
g
 have actually shaped not only television but ou
pe
ception of it as well.
W
e have come to loo
k
upon the pictu
e tube as a sou
ce of ente
tainment, placin
g
ou
 
ole in this dynamic medium as the passiveviewe
.
07 Andrew Carnegie
 And
ew Ca
ne
g
ie,
k
nown as the Kin
g
of Steel, built the steel indust
y inthe United States, and , in the p
ocess, became one of the wealthiestmen in Ame
ica. His success
esulted in pa
t f 
om his ability to sell thep
oduct and in pa
t f 
om his policy of expandin
g
du
in
g
pe
iods of economic decline, when most of his competito
s we
e
educin
g
thei
 investments.Ca
ne
g
ie believed that individuals should p
o
gr 
ess th
ou
g
h ha
d wo
rk
,but he also felt st
on
g
ly that the wealthy should use thei
fo
tunes fo
 the benefit of society. He opposed cha
ity, p
efe
rr 
in
g
instead to p
ovideeducational oppo
tunities that would allow othe
s to help themselves."He who dies
ich, dies dis
gr 
aced," he often said. Amon
g
his mo
e notewo
thy cont
ibutions to society a
e those that bea
 his name, includin
g
the Ca
ne
g
ie Institute of Pittsbu
rg
h, which has alib
a
y, a museum of fine a
ts, and a museum of national histo
y. Healso founded a school of technolo
g
y that is now pa
t of Ca
ne
g
ie-Mellon Unive
sity. Othe
philanth
ophic
g
ifts a
e the Ca
ne
g
ieEndowment fo
Inte
national Peace to p
omote unde
standin
g
betweennations, the Ca
ne
g
ie Institute of 
W
ashin
g
ton to fund scientific
esea
ch, and Ca
ne
g
ie Hall to p
ovide a cente
fo
the a
ts.Few Ame
icans have been left untouched by And
ew Ca
ne
g
ie
'
s
g
ene
osity. His cont
ibutions of mo
e than five million dolla
sestablished 2,500 lib
a
ies in small communities th
ou
g
hout the count
yand fo
med the nucleus of the public lib
a
y system that we all enjoytoday.
08 American Revolution
The Ame
ican Revolution was not a sudden and violent ove
tu
nin
g
of the political and social f 
amewo
rk
, such as late
occu
rr 
ed in F
ance andRussia, when both we
e al
eady independent nations. Si
g
nificantchan
g
es we
e ushe
ed in, but they we
e not b
eathta
k
in
g
.
W
hathappened was accele
ated evolution
athe
than out
i
g
ht
evolution.
D
u
in
g
the conflict itself people went on wo
rk
in
g
and p
ayin
g
, ma
rr 
yin
g
 and playin
g
. Most of them we
e not se
iously distu
bed by the actualfi
g
htin
g
, and many of the mo
e isolated communities sca
cely
k
newthat a wa
was on. Ame
ica
'
s
W
a
of Independence he
alded the bi
th of th
ee mode
nnations. One was Canada, which
eceived its fi
st la
rg
e influx of En
g
lish-spea
k
in
g
population f 
om the thousands of loyalists who fledthe
e f 
om the United States. Anothe
was Aust
alia, which became apenal colony now that Ame
ica was no lon
g
e
available fo
p
isone
sand debto
s. The thi
d newcome
-the United States-based itself squa
ely on
epublican p
inciples.Yet even the political ove
tu
n was not so
evolutiona
y as one mi
g
htsuppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, thewa
la
rg
ely
atified a colonial self-
ule al
eady existin
g
. B
itish officials,eve
ywhe
e ousted, we
e
eplaced by a home-
gr 
own
g
ove
nin
g
class,which p
omptly sou
g
ht a local substitute fo
 
k
in
g
and Pa
liament.
09 Suburbanization
If by "subu
b" is meant an u
ban ma
rg
in that
gr 
ows mo
e
apidly thanits al
eady developed inte
io
, the p
ocess of subu
banization be
g
andu
in
g
the eme
rg
ence of the indust
ial city in the second qua
te
of thenineteenth centu
y. Befo
e that pe
iod the city was a small hi
g
hlycompact cluste
in which people moved about on foot and
g
oods we
econveyed by ho
se and ca
t. But the ea
ly facto
ies built in the 1840
'
swe
e located alon
g
wate
ways and nea
 
ailheads at the ed
g
es of cities, and housin
g
was needed fo
the thousands of people d
awn bythe p
ospect of employment. In time, the facto
ies we
e su
rr 
ounded byp
olife
atin
g
mill towns of apa
tments and
ow houses that abutted theolde
, main cities. As a defense a
g
ainst this enc
oachment and toenla
rg
e thei
tax bases, the cities app
op
iated thei
indust
ialnei
g
hbo
s. In 1854, fo
example, the city of Philadelphia annexed mostof Philadelphia County. Simila
municipal maneuve
s too
k
place inChica
g
o and in New Yo
rk
. Indeed, most
gr 
eat cities of the UnitedStates achieved such status only by inco
po
atin
g
the communitiesalon
g
thei
bo
de
s.
W
ith the accele
ation of indust
ial
gr 
owth came acute u
ban c
owdin
g
 and accompanyin
g
social st
ess-conditions that be
g
an to app
oachdisast
ous p
opo
tions when, in 1888, the fi
st comme
cially successfulelect
ic t
action line was developed.
W
ithin a few yea
s the ho
se-
 
d
awn t
olleys we
e
eti
ed and elect
ic st
eetca
netwo
rk
s c
issc
ossedand connected eve
y majo
u
ban a
ea, foste
in
g
a wave of subu
banization that t
ansfo
med the compact indust
ial city into adispe
sed met
opolis. This fi
st phase of mass-scale subu
banizationwas
einfo
ced by the simultaneous eme
rg
ence of the u
ban MiddleClass, whose desi
es fo
 homeowne
ship in nei
g
hbo
hoods fa
om the a
g
in
g
inne
city we
esatisfied by the develope
s of sin
g
le-family housin
g
t
acts.
10 Types of Speech
Standa
d usa
g
e includes those wo
ds and exp
essions unde
stood,used, and accepted by a majo
ity of the spea
k
e
s of a lan
g
ua
g
e in anysituation
e
g
a
dless of the level of fo
mality. As such, these wo
ds andexp
essions a
e well defined and listed in standa
d dictiona
ies.Colloquialisms, on the othe
hand, a
e familia
wo
ds and idioms thata
e unde
stood by almost all spea
k
e
s of a lan
g
ua
g
e and used ininfo
mal speech o
w
itin
g
, but not conside
ed app
op
iate fo
mo
efo
mal situations. Almost all idiomatic exp
essions a
e colloquiallan
g
ua
g
e. Slan
g
, howeve
,
efe
s to wo
ds and exp
essions unde
stoodby a la
rg
e numbe
of spea
k
e
s but not accepted as
g
ood, fo
mal usa
g
eby the majo
ity. Colloquial exp
essions and even slan
g
may be found instanda
d dictiona
ies but will be so identified. Both colloquial usa
g
e andslan
g
a
e mo
e common in speech than in w
itin
g
.Colloquial speech often passes into standa
d speech. Some slan
g
alsopasses into standa
d speech, but othe
slan
g
exp
essions enjoymomenta
y popula
ity followed by obscu
ity. In some cases, themajo
ity neve
accepts ce
tain slan
g
ph
ases but neve
theless
etainsthem in thei
collective memo
ies. Eve
y
g
ene
ation seems to
equi
eits own set of wo
ds to desc
ibe familia
objects and events. It has beenpointed out by a numbe
of lin
g
uists that th
ee cultu
al conditions a
enecessa
y fo
the c
eation of a la
rg
e body of slan
g
exp
essions. Fi
st,the int
oduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in thesociety; second, a dive
se population with a la
rg
e numbe
of sub
gr 
oups; thi
d, association amon
g
the sub
gr 
oups and the majo
itypopulation.Finally, it is wo
th notin
g
that the te
ms "standa
d" "colloquial" and"slan
g
" exist only as abst
act labels fo
schola
s who studylan
g
ua
g
e. Only a tiny numbe
of the spea
k
e
s of any lan
g
ua
g
e will beawa
e that they a
e usin
g
colloquial o
slan
g
exp
essions. Mostspea
k
e
s of En
g
lish will, du
in
g
app
op
iate situations, select and useall th
ee types of exp
essions.
11 Archaeology
 A
chaeolo
g
y is a sou
ce of histo
y, not just a bumble auxilia
ydiscipline. A
chaeolo
g
ical data a
e histo
ical documents in thei
own
i
g
ht, not me
e illust
ations to w
itten texts, Just as much as any othe
 histo
ian, an a
chaeolo
g
ist studies and t
ies to
econstitute the p
ocessthat has c
eated the human wo
ld in which we live - and us ou
selves inso fa
as we a
e each c
eatu
es of ou
a
g
e and social envi
onment. A
chaeolo
g
ical data a
e all chan
g
es in the mate
ial wo
ld
esultin
g
omhuman action o
, mo
e succinctly, the fossilized
esults of humanbehavio
. The sum total of these constitutes what may be calledthe a
chaeolo
g
ical
eco
d. This
eco
d exhibits ce
tain peculia
ities anddeficiencies the consequences of which p
oduce a
athe
supe
ficialcont
ast between a
chaeolo
g
ical histo
y and the mo
e familia
 
k
indbased upon w
itten
eco
ds.Not all human behavio
fossilizes. The wo
ds I utte
and you hea
asvib
ations in the ai
a
e ce
tainly human chan
g
es in the mate
ial wo
ldand may be of 
gr 
eat histo
ical si
g
nificance. Yet they leave no so
t of t
ace in the a
chaeolo
g
ical
eco
ds unless they a
e captu
ed by adictaphone o
w
itten down by a cle
rk
. The movement of t
oops on thebattlefield may "chan
g
e the cou
se of histo
y," but this is equallyepheme
al f 
om the a
chaeolo
g
ist
'
s standpoint.
W
hat is pe
haps wo
se,most o
rg
anic mate
ials a
e pe
ishable. Eve
ythin
g
made of wood, hide,wool, linen,
gr 
ass, hai
, and simila
mate
ials will decay and vanish indust in a few yea
s o
centu
ies, save unde
ve
y exceptionalconditions. In a
elatively b
ief pe
iod the a
chaeolo
g
ical
eco
d is
educe to me
e sc
aps of stone, bone,
g
lass, metal, and ea
thenwa
e.Still mode
n a
chaeolo
g
y, by applyin
g
app
op
iate techniques andcompa
ative methods, aided by a few luc
k
y finds f 
om peat-bo
g
s,dese
ts, and f 
ozen soils, is able to fill up a
g
ood deal of the
g
ap.
12 Museums
F
om Boston to Los An
g
eles, f 
om New Yo
rk
City to Chica
g
o to
D
allas,museums a
e eithe
plannin
g
, buildin
g
, o
w
appin
g
up wholesaleexpansion p
o
gr 
ams. These p
o
gr 
ams al
eady have
adically alte
edfacades and floo
plans o
a
e expected to do so in the not-too-distantfutu
e.In New Yo
rk
City alone, six majo
institutions have sp
ead up and outinto the ai
space and nei
g
hbo
hoods a
ound them o
a
e p
epa
in
g
todo so.The
easons fo
this confluence of activity a
e complex, but one facto
 is a conside
ation eve
ywhe
e - space.
W
ith collections expandin
g
, withthe needs and functions of museums chan
g
in
g
, empty space hasbecome a ve
y p
ecious commodity.P
obably nowhe
e in the count
y is this mo
e t
ue than at thePhiladelphia Museum of A
t, which has needed additional space fo
 decades and which
eceived its last si
g
nificant facelift ten yea
s a
g
o.Because of the space c
unch, the A
t Museum has becomeinc
easin
g
ly cautious in conside
in
g
acquisitions and donations of a
t,in some cases passin
g
up oppo
tunities to st
en
g
then its collections.
D
eaccessin
g
- o
sellin
g
off - wo
rk
s of a
t has ta
k
en on new impo
tancebecause of the museum
'
s space p
oblems. And inc
easin
g
ly, cu
ato
shave been fo
ced to ju
gg
le
g
alle
y space,
otatin
g
one maste
piece intopublic view while anothe
is sent to sto
a
g
e.
D
espite the clea
need fo
additional
g
alle
y and sto
a
g
e space,howeve
," the museum has no plan, no plan to b
ea
k
out of itsenvelope in the next fifteen yea
s," acco
din
g
to Philadelphia Museumof A
t
'
s p
esident.
13 Skyscrapers and Environment
In the late 1960
'
s, many people in No
th Ame
ica tu
ned thei
attentionto envi
onmental p
oblems, and new steel-and-
g
lass s
k
ysc
ape
s we
ewidely c
iticized. Ecolo
g
ists pointed out that a cluste
of tall buildin
g
s ina city often ove
bu
dens public t
anspo
tation and pa
rk
in
g
lotcapacities.S
k
ysc
ape
s a
e also lavish consume
s, and waste
s, of elect
ic powe
.In one
ecent yea
, the addition of 17 million squa
e feet of s
k
ysc
ape
 office space in New Yo
rk
City
aised the pea
k
daily demand fo
 elect
icity by 120, 000
k
ilowatts-enou
g
h to supply the enti
e city of  Albany, New Yo
rk
, fo
a day.Glass-walled s
k
ysc
ape
s can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (o
 
g
ain)th
ou
g
h a wall of half-inch plate
g
lass is mo
e than ten times thatth
ou
g
h a typical mason
y wall filled with insulation boa
d. To lessenthe st
ain on heatin
g
and ai
-conditionin
g
equipment, builde
s of s
k
ysc
ape
s have be
g
un to use double-
g
lazed panels of 
g
lass, and
eflective
g
lasses coated with silve
o
 
g
old mi
rr 
o
films that
educe
g
la
e as well as heat
g
ain. Howeve
, mi
rr 
o
-walled s
k
ysc
ape
s
aisethe tempe
atu
e of the su
rr 
oundin
g
ai
and affect nei
g
hbo
in
g
buildin
g
s.S
k
ysc
ape
s put a seve
e st
ain on a city
'
s sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two
W
o
ld T
ade Cente
towe
s in New Yo
rk
Citywould alone
g
ene
ate 2.25 million
g
allons of 
aw sewa
g
e each yea
-asmuch as a city the size of Stanfo
d, Connecticut , which has apopulation of mo
e than 109, 000.
14 A Rare Fossil Record

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