Physics Makes Aging Inevitable—A Response to Comments

When I published Life’s Ratchet four years ago, I was focused on how life can create and sustain highly ordered systems in the presence of the surrounding molecular chaos—how molecular ratchets, in other words, “extract order from chaos.” To my surprise, the book generated great interest in the area of aging research. Aging, says Ed Lakatta, chief of the Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science at the National Institute on Aging, extracts “chaos from order.”

As part of this surprising interest, I was recently invited to write an article for Nautilus, which generated a considerable volume of comments, including this comment

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